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SMAD 101, Week 4 Notes

by: Charles Smith

SMAD 101, Week 4 Notes SMAD 101

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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over in lecture the fourth week.
Intro to media arts and design
George Johnson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Smith on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Cultivation Theory:     Resonance­ People think their life is what they see on TV.     Cultivation differential­ More TV watching= a more perturbed view of reality. Less TV watching=  less perturbed view of reality.     The marketplace drives the cultivation theory. Stories provide a view of reality quite different  from what people actually experience. Different is exciting.     Stalagmite Theories­Ones that are going on constantly and build up in popularity over time.     Socialization Theories­ (All Stalagmite Theories.)    ● Advertising and children’s buying theory­ Children or naive consumers want something  because the advertisement of such declares that they will have a higher social standing  with it.   ● Political Socialization­ Political views in the Media being adopted and accepted by the  public. Members who subscribe to the same views come together and socialize.   ● “Homogenization of socialization stages” Homogenization­ sending out the same  message to everyone regardless of age, race, and background. Ex. Children are  exposed to the same messages as adults, either through the asme media or by listening  to their parents experiences with Socialization.   ● Lewinsky Scandal and the discussion of “sexual acts on the 6 o’clock, “family news”.     Priming Effects­ NOT STALAGMITE THEORIES  These are messages to the public with a more immediate impact. Short time after exposure we  are more influenced by messages. When we see violent or sexual stimuli, this primes us for a  short period of time to be more included to act violently or sexually.     Children view more and more deaths through media. This has been labeled a major health  concern by the AMA.     Violence is popular to producers of media because it is easier to producer than anything else. It  is cheap, understandable, and desirable. With Media like TV and movies being our #1 export, it  is beneficial to do what is simplest.     Effects of Media Violence.   Catharsis­   ● Disinhibition­ Seeing violence be good in opposition to what adopters have told us.   ● Imitation­ doing what you see displayed in the Media.   ● Desensitization­ seeing and taking no action because it is seen as not shocking.  ● Overall, studies show that viewing violent media contributes to aggressive behavior.   Sexually Explicit Media  ● Main concern is the free and easy access that the public has to said media.   ● Five kinds or classes of sexual material.   ○ Sexually violent materials­ Rape scenes  ○ Nonviolent, but degrading material­ unhealthy, mentally or emotionally abusive  relationships.   ○ Nonviolent , non­degrading­ Scientific or Medical examples of an otherwise  sexual topic.   ○ Nudity­ Frontal or rear.   ○ Child Pornography­ No protection from persecution and seen as retched by most  of the community.   Effects of Sexually explicit material.   ● Cognitive­ disinhibition  ○ Less restricted and more callous   ○ Change in moral values  ○ Perception of normalcy.   ● Behavioral effects  ○ Disinhibition   ○ Imitation  ○ Criminal Sexual Behavior  ● 1970 Commision on Obscenity­ Any laws prohibiting the consumption of sexually explicit  materials for consenting adults should be abolished. No cause and effect relationship  between consumption of Sexually Explicit Materials and Sexual Obscenity  ● 1986 Meese Commission­ Interviewed Workers in the Sexually Explicit Material field  (Porn stars, prostitutes, etc.), sexual crime victims, and perpetrators in four different  cities. They Came to the conclusion that hardcore pornography is a probable cause to  sexual crimes.      MINORITY REPRESENTATION:    ● Women   ○ Women make up more than half of the population but are wildly  under­represented in the media.   ○ When the are they are often put into the stereotype roles of the Homemaker, the  Beautiful object, or the Superwoman.   ○ Media representation of gender roles are especially influential on children as they  are developing their attitudes about sex roles.   Race­ ​Improving, but still has a way to go. Multicultural “Cinderella” stories. NAACP criticized  networks for lack of diversity.   ● Latino  ○ Produced by early immigrans from Spain, Central, and South America.  ○ Latino native media approach is when Latino media follows the news and trends  of the Latino community inside the United States.   ○ Mexico Outside media approach is when Latino media follows the news and  trends from/about Central and South America, particularly mexico.  ○ Instrumental Latino Media Producer­ Raoul Cortez.    ● African American  ○ African American media was produced by white abolitionist but was taken over  by early African American writers to establish a more direct perspective.   ● LGBT+  ○ Increased after the 1969 Stonewall Riots in NYC, over 150 new publications  evolved.   ○ Friendship and Freedom was the first Gay publication. TV networks generated  programs such as W​ ill and Grace​ nd ​Ell​    ● Asian Americans  ○ Often opposed to being used in films and Television in favor of white actors  playing in “Yellowface”, a technique that used heavy makeup to give a Caucasian  person the appearance of an Asian, Like David Carradine used in the movie  “Kung Fu”. Margaret Cho was given tips on how to act “Asian“ by playing into  stereotypes.     STEREOTYPES  Ellen Feis was used as the German symbol for the legalization of Marijuana because in a  testimonial she gave for apple computers, she acted in a manner similar to that of one under the  influence of Marijuana. After over 50 years in the market, Barbie from Mattel was redesigned to  include the more natural looks/ standards of beauty.     Social and Health Concerns:  ● Promotion of drugs: tobacco, alcohol, and illegal or controlled substances.   ● Promotion of sex, because of the ignorance towards sexually transmitted diseases.   ● Time displacement: Media is not a social, or active activity. Heavy phone/ internet usage  has been connected to increased rates of depression.     Global Impact  ● Mass Media can affect socio­political environment on a local, national, and international  level. Can also influence how the public views select issues and events.   ● Closed societies discourage freedom of thought and expression and government is no  open. Often defined as positive freedom. Use information filtering to keep people  uninformed.   ● Open Societies are where the media monitors and reports on government operations.  Often defined as having negative freedom. Encouraged participation with democracy.     4 Types of Systems  ● Libertarian (free press) system  ○ Government has committed to present all views and cultural taste to audience.   ○ Corporations own most media outlets and is driven by a profit motive.   ○ Independent from government.   ○ U.S. is an example of this system.   ● Social­Responsibility System   ○ Media ensures that government isnt abusing its powers. Government is typically  not allowed to influence media content but still owns media outlets in some way,  (air ways, leasings, etc.) Britain is an example.  ● Authoritarian System  ○ Government totally controls media content.   ○ Media is used as propaganda arm of state typically flows out of a monarch or  religion based system. Iran is an example.   ● Soviet­Communist System  ○ Media publically owned and government controlled. Ideas of ruling calss are the  ruling ideas of the media. Unmotivated by profit. Used to educate, promote,  socialization and conformity to the masses.   ○ Non government approved broadcast cause people to disappear.   ○ China, North Korea, and Cuba are examples   Cultural Context  ● Culture can either bring people together or separate them.   ● Mass media can accelerate the cultural changes  ● Different meanings for different cultures  ● The greater the differences, the greater the communication barrier.     High Cultural Context  Japan, CHina, Saudi Arabia are all examples of this. They are places where consumers heavily  depend on a shared understanding of the context within which that media content is presented.  No ability to parody or satire government or national values.     Low cultural Context   The United States is an example of this Where the people have the ability to parody or satire  almost anything. 


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