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by: Isaac Lemus

PSYC 339 WEEK 4 PSYC 339

Isaac Lemus

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These notes cover anything that was discussed during week 4
Origins of the Mind
Justin Wood
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Lemus on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 339 at University of Southern California taught by Justin Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Origins of the Mind in PSYC at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Lecture Notes 9/13: Navigation 3  ● Review of the past two lectures: The main question is how do we navigate the world?  ○ What we found is that we all have some common mechanisms and we share  these traits with animals.  ■ Path integration (desert ants): the sun is used as a compass, steps are  counted and remembered, natural geometry is used to B Line back.  ■ Snapshot/ view dependent system (Rats in swimming maze, Bees): We  match what we’re currently navigating with memories in our head.  ● An example of snapshot memory, boy with autism is able to draw  rome with little to no error with only one view  ■ Reorientation system: When the two other systems can’t be used, this  comes into play. Only cares about the geometry layout of an environment.  Properties of the system:  ● Domain specific  ● Task specific  ● Encapsulated   ■ Take away; there must be some core knowledge of space  ● How do humans go beyond this?  ○ Snapshots systems can be limiting because theoretically you can only recognize  where you are if you’ve been in that exact place before. But humans, can adjust  and mold their snapshots to the current situation.  ■ Kids can’t do this until they are 6  ○ Human adults develop the ability to use key spatial features   ○ At 6 we start using spatial language. So there is strong correlation of when we  are able to describe where we are and when we develop more powerful  capabilities of navigation. But be careful because correlation doesn’t mean  causation. One could cause the other or vice versa or maybe something else  could develop as a third variable that creates both language and representation  ○ Two attempts to figure this out  ■ Use human adults with both language and representation and take away  their language abilities. Had to recite a textbook or following a beat with  their hands while trying to remember where something was put.  ● With drumming most can still go to the red wall  ● With reciating, we mess up. We can’t put together “left of the red  wall” in our head because we are using our language process to  recite the textbook. Just our core systems must be used.    ■ Teach little children left and right and see if they can navigate more  effectively  ● Learners: they navigate more like an adult.   ● Non learners: search equally  ■ There is something about language that formulates the way we think.  Language acts like a bridge that can connect information from various  core knowledges and form thought. Connect geometric representation  with object representation. Language unencapsulated these core values.  Animals can't think “Water is west of the rock”. It's all about spatial  language.  ● Lets first look at pictures. All humans have pictures, but no other animals do.   ○ Do humans understand pictures at birth  ■ Hochberg & Brooks experimented on their own kids. 19 months without  pictures. Kids could recognize pictures at first sight.  ■ But do kids realize it’s just a picture not the actual thing?   ● They think it’s the object itself, especially if it’s more realistic  looking  ● By 19 months those traits seem to be completely gone. Meanwhile  their pointing ability gradually goes up. So they can recognize  pictures but they don't understand them until 1.5   ■ Do kids know that a picture represents something else  ● Find snoopy experiment in a little room to a big room.  ● At 2 they can't do this, but at 2.5 most can now do it. Start to  understand symbolic capacity.  ● Same thing of the 3D model experiment, except it develops a little  later(around 3 years of age).   ● Maybe what's hard is dual representation. On one hand it's an  object but on the hand it symbolizes something else.   ● What happens when we trick them to get rid of the symbolic  relationship, by shrinking and growing machine. Results? Children  have no problem finding the object with the help of the shrinking  machine, because they don’t need to form a symbolic relationship   ● When do kids understand that toys are representation of real  things. They don’t act appropriately because of scale errors. They  are perceiving the size correctly, and they understand it’s too  small, but they still try to use the objects in the same way.  Conceptual not perceptual.    ● Overview: We start with mechanisms that are shared with other animals (3 core  systems) yet with development we build incredible representation.   ○ Understand other perspectives (3 hill)  ○ We can orientate using non geometrical cues  ○ Pictures, models and maps   ○ Language could be the answer     Lecture Notes 9/15: Objects 1  ● From a review of the previous two topics of space perception and navigation, there  appears to be a pattern of innate mechanisms. What about object representation?  ○ Object representation isn’t as easy as it sounds. Its taken decades for us to  develop machines that understand what an object as simple as a duck is. How do  we associate shapes, colors, lines, texture, and so on to discern objects?  ○ There needs to be some sort of principles in place for this to happen, and that is  what we are going to try and find.   ● So from machines to people, how do we process objects?  ○ How does the brain recognize what an object might be? We have to figure out  what goes with what, what is the complete shape of an object, we have to  continue to represent objects even after they disappear, we have to separate  different objects.  ● Somehow our visual system has solved all of these problems.  ● That leads us to the main question: what aspects of adult human knowledge allows us to  recognize objects?  ○ Another central question is whether or not this trait is nativism or empiricism?   ● How do we test this? First, what are the object representation systems? What are the  signatures. Then we'll test for these signature in babies and animals  ○ Random fun side note: attention has a severe limit   ■ We are never taking in or processing the entire scene  ● Jabbawockeez example  ○ We have two object representation  ■ Object tracking systems   ● Doesn’t care if objects change, it track motions. Doesn’t care  about what, but where AKA spatiotemporal information.   ● Signature of this system  ○ We can track 3 to 4 at once  ■ Can we track across visible barrier and invisible  barriers. Objects can survive inclusion  ■ Can’t track when an object doesn’t disappear along  an edge   ○ Its easier to track an entire rather than just a part of it.  ○ Brain operates over objects not fluid objects.   ■ Object recognition systems   ● Complete opposite of tracking. Color and shape.   ● Signatures of this system  ○ Color and and shapes  ■ Grayscaled then silhouette experiment   ○ We are more inclined to do perceived shape together  rather than physical shape  ■ Smoothies, cubies and spikes experiment  ○ We are sensitive to non accidental cues  ■ Camera, flashlight, drill example  ■ If we see two lines overlapping it must be a corner  ■ Magnet like slopes video   ■ T rex video  ● We pick up categories and kinds of things. We will continue next  week!     


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