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Unit 1 Notes

by: mak15k

Unit 1 Notes PET3322

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All class notes for Exam 1. His tests are based primarily off class lectures, NOT the Powerpoints! Those will give you too much information. Hope they help!
Functional Anatomy and Physiology I
Arturo Figueroa-Galvez
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology




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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by mak15k on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PET3322 at Florida State University taught by Arturo Figueroa-Galvez in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy and Physiology I in Anatomy and Physiology at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
WEEK 1- THURSDAY, 9/1/2016 understand homeostasis and the job of epithelial cells  Six levels of structural information: 1. chemical level (atoms to molecules) 2. cellular level (molecules into cells) 3. tissue level (groups of cells working together) 4. organ level (two or more tissues become and organ) 5. system level (related organs with common functions) o endo = inside the body...endocrine system contains multiple endocrine glands that secrete hormones o integumentary system- skin o skeletal system o muscular system o nervous system (CNS- spinal cord and brain; PNS & ANS) o cardiovascular system- blood vessels include veins and arteries o lymphatic system o respiratory system o digestive system...gastrointestinal system...etc. o urinary system...renal system...etc. 6. organism level (all of the cells, tissues, and organ systems become a human being)  homeostasis: balance = equilibrium; intake = expenditure (body weight) o blood pressure, for example...changes with age, activity level, standing/ sitting, etc. therefore homeostasis is different from individual to individual o ranges of normality depend on the conditions o maintenance of relatively constant conditions inside the body o although conditions within the body are stable this is a result of many dynamic processes that constantly adjust internal activities to match changing needs o blood glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. o 5L of blood = 120bp..donate 1/2 L of blood...4.5L, causes bp to decrease 110  see diagram below o control center sends signal to organ (effecter organ...organ that causes the effect--> decreases variable back to normal)  the volume and composition of the various fluids within our bodies are carefully regulated: o our body fluids include:  intercellular fluid- the fluid inside out cells; the greatest volume of fluid  extracellular fluid- all body fluids other than the ones inside our cells; can be subdivided into location:  interstitial fluid- fluid between cells in tissues  plasma- fluid component of blood  lymph- the fluid in out lymphatic vessels  cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)- the fluid within in the CNS  synovial fluid- the fluid within most joints Control 3 Input: center 4Output: Informati Information sent on along efferent sent  pathway to along afferent Effector Rpathway rsensor) (sensor) to 2 Change detected by receptor Response of Stimulu effector feeds Ss:mulus: 1 PProduce back to influence change magnitude of  change in  stimulus and variable returns Variable (in homeostasis) variable to homeostasis  Feedback systems control out internal environment: o negative feedback systems act to stabilize the body in the face od changing external and internal conditions; these systems cause an opposite response to the initial change, and so are self-limiting...homeostasis; muscle feedback o positive feedback systems are important in specific situations, when a rapid or very strong effect is desired; unlike negative feedback, here the response is the same as that caused by the initial change. o An outside event must break the positive feedback cycle. o see diagram below  Three essential components of r homeostatic regulation by negative feedback: 1. RECEPTOR! Baroreceptors in the wall of the arteries (aorta and carotid)- detect changes in blood pressure and communicate with the brain 2. THE BRAIN! The brain interprets information and sends signals to the heart and blood vessels; medulla oblongata (: 3. THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS! They alter their activities based on signals from the brain ...resulting in the blood pressure being restored to normal! (Diagram on the right) Same if the pressure is too low.  Blood glucose level homeostasis system: o hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia o fasted blood glucose of 126mg is high --> diabetes; acute hyperglycemia after having a huge meal is not bad, because of homeostasis o normal is 80-120(max) o the receptors are in the pancreas (beta cells), which sends a signal to the controller (also the pancreas..) that tells it to release a hormone (insulin) that releases it to the effecter organ (pancreas again) which moves glucose from the blood to inside the cell, which decreases the blood sugar levels back to normal o the opposite is also true- if we don't eat for an extended period of time, then the body stores the glucose in adipose tissue, and therefore uses the excess stored there, causing us to lose weight...if we don't have enough stored (or is you have hypoglycemia) then the brain lacks energy to support normal function and then we feel tired o pancreas releases glucagon via alpha cells which raise the glucose levels  Body temperature homeostasis system: o receptor is the hypothalamus, which receives the warm blood (stimulus) o control center (hypothalamus) says "lose body heat" o the sweat glands say, "okay, let's lose water" o the water comes from intracellular fluids within the blood (basal dilation opens the blood cells, which causes us to turn red) o after we start to sweat, the hypothalamus receives cooler blood and equilibrium is reached o the same is true for the cold- our skin turns blue! (Closed vessels, retracting water, basal restriction, retaining heat especially in the limbs)  ischemia occurs when improper blood flow occurs and the limbs are cold all the time 9-20-2016, TUESDAY EXAM 1 THIS THURSDAY! 40 questions in one hour CONNECTIVE TISSUE (CONT.)  Connective tissue in some tissues are below the epithelium o most abundant tissue in the body o most important function is to connect; also encloses organs as a capsule and separate organs into layers, support and movement (bones), transport blood (water), cushion and insulate (fat)  types of connective tissue- what makes them different and similar  Connective tissue proper (most common)- fibroblasts and fibrocytes  loose- few fiber, more ground substance o areola o adipose o reticular  dense- more fiber, less ground substance (regular/irregular, elastic/inelastic doesn't matter)  supporting connective tissue (cartilage still supports when baby, like bone in adult)  cartilage (semisolid matrix)- chondroblasts and chondrocytes o hyaline o fibro cartilage o elastic  bone (solid matrix)- only one that has 3 (osteo- blasts, cytes, and clasts) o spongy o compact  fluid connective tissue  blood (only fluid connective tissue) o RBC or erethrocytes, erethroblasts o WBC or leukocytes (respond to injury, inflammation, infection)  fixed position in tissue  wandering  clean the tissue o Platelets  Hemopotietic tissue o Red marrow o Yellow marrow o cells of connective tissue:  matrix made of...  blasts- create matrix  cytes- maintain matrix  clasts- only in bone o ground substance is main component o inside matrix= fibers; seats in classroom; can be collagen (most common protein in body, are inelastic, like bones) or elastic (returns to its original shape, like muscles; molecules are cross-linked) o dense, less dense/ lose- fat is less dense...just use common sense; subcutanous tissue = hypodermis is lose connective tissue proper o fibroblasts, fibrocytes are like ages- blasts = young (build), cytes = old o 1 kg of fat and 1 kg of fat are the same...but 1 kg of muscle is more dense than 1 kg of fat o tendons- attach muscle to bones o ligaments- attach bone to bone o cartilage- connective tissue proper that contains the matrix, the cell (prefix: chondro-blasts or cytes), and fibers (elastic and collagen)  perichondrium: dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds cartilage; fibroblasts of perichondrium can differentiate into chondroblasts  hyaline- ribs, trachea, and bronchi; involved in growth that increases bone length  fibro cartilage  elastic  difference is on proportion of elastic or cartilage fibers o chondrocyte- surrounded by space called lacuna (other cells are also surrounded by lacuna- cyte cell is also in it)  elastic cartilage- in ear and septum (between nostrils) and also epiglottis (allows food down trachea but not back up) o elastic fibers o surrounded by lacunae with chondrocyte inside  fibrocartilage o more collagen fibers to support the structure o knee, jaw, between vertebrae (intervertebral disk)  bone o contains matrix- rigid in adults (calcified...lots of calcium, phosphate) o collagen fibers, very few elastic fibers (especially as you get older) but there are a little more in children (bones don't break completely) o marrow- inside bones (long in children...adults don't have it in femur); site of hematopoiesis (produce blood) o osteoblasts- bone forming (never found in lacunae, but on the edges of bone where new lamellae form o osteocytes- mature bone cells (when blasts get completely surrounded by the forming salt) o osteoclasts- bone resorbing/ break down bone matrix, causing growth (higher concentration in children); until homeostasis is reached o matrix of blood- most abundant is plasma (water, lacks fibers, moves through vessels but both fluid and cells can move in and out of the vessels)  formed elements- RBC, WBC, and platelets  hemoglobin  types of muscle (not on this test in detail) o skeletal- striated; voluntary o cardiac- heart; striated; involuntary o smooth- no striations; involuntary BONE REMODELING  high Ca levels- not a good thing in the blood (want normal level!) o osteoblasts- break down matrix, release Ca and Potassium in blood if levels are low o WEEK 3- THURSDAY, 9/15/2016  Resting membrane potential...NEGATIVE o electrical charges inside (K-) and outside (Na+) the membrane o the value of the negativity depends on the cell's specific excitement o protein passes from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus...the protein needs a vesicle to move (it can't swim) and then it's released, moves along the Golgi apparatus, gets inside another vesicle and moves to the plasma membrane...via exocytosis, it moves into the extracellular fluid (blood, etc.)  Ribosome- site of protein synthesis o we have DNA... o DNA has the information to produce proteins... o but that information cannot leave the nucleus of the cell... o so we have to make a copy of the information... o so we have to use mRNA (messenger carries the recipe for the proteins) o 3 kinds of mRNA-  -messenger produced in nucleus via transcription (can't have original information/ grades because it would change them to how it wanted)  -transfer RNA (tRNA)  -ribosome RNA (rRNA)- this is the ribosome o transcription: the process where DNA is sequence is copied/transcribed into RNA sequence  if RNA contains sequence to encode proteins it is called mRNA  2 strands of DNA with specific nucleotide parts (Cytosine with Guanine, and Adenine with Thymine ONLY) on the ribose base o Polymerase functions to open the RNA, split the strands, and then copy the sides to make mRNA o if polymerase reads "A", the mRNA will be "U" for Uracine (only difference in DNA and RNA) o DNA: A-C-G, mRNA: U-C-G o mRNA enters between the 2 subunits o the ribosome reads 3 bases at the same time, which are called codons o at the top of the patters, the types of nucleotide parts either match or are opposite o then it reaches the second column o the tRNA must have which anti-codon...? (the sequence of bases for AAU, is UUA) o the tRNA keeps doing this until the protein is finished o this is called translation o What kind of information is in the mRNA? Nucleotides, information from the nucleus o after reading the nucleotides, they are translated to amino acids  function of the mRNA is to bring information from the nucleus about codons  tRNA reads information and signals transfer to bring amino acids to transfer...amino acid from cytoplasm to ribosome to make the protein  epithelial tissue covers all bodily surfaces and forms glands o outside surface of the body o lining of the digestive, respiratory and urogentital systems, heart and blood vessels, lining of many body cavities o the tubes connecting the urinary bladder to the kidneys have epithelial tissue, and the kidneys (filter plasma) has little tubes that control the o center of the tube is the bumon, and the inside of the wall are the epithelial cells o in the intestine, say there is a glucose in the lumen...the epithelial cells will receive that glucose, so it enters the intestine, crosses the plasma membrane, crosses the other membrane in the epithelial cell, and then enters the blood vessel (which also has epithelial tissue)  below epithelial cells there is connective tissue, and in between is the basement membrane o apical surface/membrane makes up the basement membrane  functions of epithelial tissue : o protecting underlying structures (epithelial lining in the mouth) o acting as barriers (skin...we touch the connective tissue though) o permitting the passage of substances (nephrons in the kidney) o secreting (means moving out) substances (pancreas) o absorbing substances (lining of the small intestine)  number of layers of cells o simple- most common, extends from basement membrane to the free surface o stratified- more than one layer; shape of the cells of the apical layer used to name the tissue; includes transitional epithelium where the apical cell layers  simple squamous (not on test) - single layer of flat cells o function is dependant of the structure:  to allow the movement of O2 and CO2 (diffusion --> lungs)  to allow certain substances to stay in/ go out (filtration --> kidneys)  to protect against friction in the joints  endothelium (function of epithelial cells in the blood vessels) and endocardium (function of the epithelial cells in the heart) are the specific important ones...endo = inside  epithelial membranes in the epidermis (outside/ above the dermis, made of connective tissue) o connective tissue of the skin is stratified (multiple layers) o two different kinds of glands:  endocrine (secrete inside)- no open contact with exterior, no ducts, secrete hormones  exocrine (secrete outside) glands- open contact maintained with exterior, secrete materials into ducts or directly onto an apical surface o whatever is in the lumen is not absorbed o a clear exocrine gland is the sweat (goes outside of the body) o inside the body the exocrine glands release to the lumen and go out from there  epithelial membranes- contain epithelium and an underlying connective tissue o mucous membranes o serous membranes- simple epithelium called mesothelium  line cavities not open to exterior  pericardial (heart), pleural (lungs), peritoneal  two layers:  parietal layer attaches to the body wall around the organ (parents back off...)  visceral layer attaches to the organs themselves (vice...)  interpleural space in between the two  viscera: the internal organs of the body o every time that the diaphragm contracts, the position of the pleura also moves WEEK 3- TUESDAY 9/13 LECTURE NOTES  Diffusion- the movement of substances from high to low concentrations using concentration gradients, not energy; allows small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide to cross the plasma membrane (phospholipid bilayer and integral protein) o water is a little different...  water is not a substance but it has molecules (oxygen and two hydrogen)  water moves from high volume to low volume  volume of water produces pressure- more water = great pressure  water moves from high pressure to low pressure  Osmotic pressure: force required to prevent water from moving across a membrane by osmosis  water moves through the integral protein because it is a specific non-lipid molecule  water will move to an environment where there is more solute to dissolve (guys/water will move to the room with the most girls/solutes)  movement of water stops at equilibrium...homeostasis  High concentration of potassium, low concentration of sodium inside the cell...high concentration of sodium, low concentration of potassium outside the cell o isosmotic- solutions with the same concentrations of solute particles; cell that has the same concentration inside and outside  hyperismotic- solution with a greater concentration of solute  hyposmotic- solution with a lesser concentration of solute o isotonic- cell neither shrinks nor swells o hypertonic- cell shrinks and loses water (crenation) o hypotonic- cell swells and gains water (hemolysis of red blood cells)  If you swim in a pool of saltwater, your skin will become dehydrated and look older because the body loses water to the salt outside of it...if you swim in a pool of anti-salt water, your skin would swell and your skin would look younger...if you swim in a pool of the same material as your skin, nothing would happen because you would be in equilibrium Red blood cell H2O Hypotonic solution Isotonic solution Hypertonic solution (a)When a red blood cell is(bWhen a red blood cell is placed en a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic in an isotonic solution (one placed in a hypertonic solution (one having a low having a concentration of solution (one having a high solute concentration), solutes equal to that inside thete concentration), water water enters the cell by cell), water moves into and outs by osmosis out of the osmosis (black arrows), of the cell at the same ratecell and into the solution causing the cell to swell or (black arrows). No net waterblack arrows), resulting in even burst (lyse; puff of movement occurs, and the cell shrinkage (crenation). red in lower part of cell ). shape remains normal. If you consume a lot of carbohydrates, the intestines can't absorb them all, so they stay in your body and diffuse water into the large intestine, making you gassy. Excessive glucose in diabetics causes excessive urination because more water is needed to diffuse the  Simple diffusion- through the lipid bilayer for lipids and gases (O, CO2)  Facilitated diffusion- channel (for ions) or carriers (for bigger molecules; glucose and amino acids)  Saturation of a carrier protein: 1. when the concentration of x molecules outside the cell is low, the transport rate is low because it is limited by the number of molecules available to be transported 2. when more molecules are present outside the cell as long as enough carrier proteins are available, more molecules can be transported; thus the transport rate increases 3. the transport rate is limited by the number of carrier proteins can transport solutes. When the number of molecules outside the cell is so large that the carrier proteins are all occupied, the system is saturated and the transport rate cannot increase.  Mediated Transport- Primary Active Transport o ATP-powered transport  the use of energy allows the cell to accumulate substances  ATPase- enzyme  rate of transport depends on concentration of substrate and on concentration of ATP  Na+/K+ exchange pump that creates electrical potentials across membranes  the role of the pump is to move sodium one direction and potassium in the opposite direction...antiport  sodium moves from the outside (high concentration) to the inside (low concentration); it crosses the plasma membrane via facilitated diffusion (no energy needed)...unless it moves from low concentration in the inside to high concentration on the outside  potassium moves from the inside (high concentration) to the outside (low concentration)  The cell begins at rest, ACoA bind to receptor and the gate opens  potassium will not be with another positive charge- it escapes through its channel leaving a little excess sodium on the inside  in order to reach homeostasis, the concentration of sodium will never be higher in the inside than on the outside  to move the excess sodium outside and the excess potassium to the inside from low to high concentration (against the concentration gradient), we need energy- ATP  Purpose- to pump sodium and to keep the concentration of sodium high 6 K  is released and  Extracellul 1 Binding of cytoplasmic  Na  sites are ready  ar fluid Na+ to the pump  to bind Na+ again;  protein stimulates  the cycle repeats. phosphorylation by  ATP. Cytoplasm 2 Phosphorylation causes  the protein to change  Concentration  its shape. gradients of K   and Na + 5 Loss of  3 The shape change  expels Na  to the  phosphate  restores the  4 K  binding  outside, and  extracellular K   original  triggers release  conformation  of the phosphate  binds. of the pump  group. protein. o Secondary active transport energy is the result of the primary, which is high sodium concentration! o We get our energy from the movement of water, which is the same concept as the sodium-potassium pump that creates energy for other things  Mediated transport- Secondary Active Transport o Ions move in the same (symport) or in different (antiport) directions o Glucose (and amino acids) is moved via facilitated diffusion with an integral protein without energy because it moves from high to low, but in some places it moves from low to high... o Form low to high, then we need energy, which is secondary active transport using sodium  The rich guy/sodium tells his friend/glucose or amino acids to come with him into the bar because he can get him in for free, against the norm of waiting in line/concentration gradient  Can we move electrolytes from low to high via facilitated diffusion? No...only primary active transport! Transport protein Na –K + Na + pump 1 2 Glucose K + Na+ Glucose + +  +  1 A Na –K pump maintains a concentration of Na that is higher outside  the cell than inside. 2 Sodium ions move back into the cell through a transport protein that also  +  moves glucose. The concentration gradient for Na provides energy  required to move glucose against its concentration gradient.  How do large molecules cross a plasma membrane? They have to use the transporters- vesicles are small spherical membrane sacs  Endocytosis- inside o Internalization of substances by formation of a vesicle  phagocytosis- allows some cells to eat extra large particles; in white blood cells to eat everything that needs to be cleaned  pinocytosis- for large particles; to introduce large particles  Exocytosis- outside o accumulated vesicle secretions expelled (out) from cell  secretion of digestive enzymes by pancreas  secretion of mucous  THURSDAY, 9/8/2016 Chapter 3- Diffusion  Know the basic structure of the cell o intracellular fluid = cytoplasm --> organelles included (mitochondria...internal membrane with same structure as plasma membrane...Golgi apparatus...endoplasmic reticulum...nucleus with membranes like the plasma membrane) o know definitions  Plasma membrane o glucose isn't important...ignore prefix "glyco" and smaller fonts o lipids and product components are important o phospholipids: bilayer; hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails...2 layers of phospholipids creates the bilayer o cholesterol helps move substances across the membrane o proteins that cross the membrane completely (integral products)...transmembrane o integral proteins with channels is to allow the movement of small substances (smaller diameter than the channel of the protein) to move through the bilayer o the other proteins are carriers (something that carries the substance through the membrane (outside to inside or vice versa) o active or passive mechanisms...movement caused by the concentration gradient of the ion/molecule (most commonly sodium, potassium)  more solute outside (positive) to less solute inside (negative)...  if the inside is positive, sodium would not move to the inside o electrical gradients that can speed or slow the movement of ions o speed of movement depends on the concentration and electrical gradients o integral or intrinsic o peripheral or extrinsic  ion channels made from integral proteins o ligand gated open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins o voltage gated ion channels open when there is a change in charge across the plasma membrane...potassium is the most important o the receptor/scanner opens the gate...if the parking lot is full/concentration is greater inside than it is outside, so they will move from high to low concentration, so you wouldn't want to go inside and park o if the parking lot is empty and the gate is open...then the concentration is greater outside than it is inside and you would go into the cell/parking lot o channels always open to ions and electrolytes...voltage gated for potassium (electrical scanner parking lot that is always open, but only potassium can get in) o sodium channel is ligand has to have the right card to get in/the right neurotransmitter o the intracellular concentration of sodium is low and of potassium is high...the extracellular concentration of sodium is high and of potassium is low...potassium diffuses from inside to the outside (high to low) o the receptor for ACH is on the outside (neurotransmitter to open the ligand- gated channel) which is from the neuron that is very close to the cell itself  carrier proteins/ transporters o integral proteins move ions, glucose and amino acids from one side of membrane to the other o amino acids and glucose are the 2 most important ones, but they each have a specific carrier (not the same one)  glucose...concentration gradient  inactive mechanism = diffusion from outside to inside (high to low) o uniporters- move one particle o symporters- move 2 particles in the same direction at the same time o antiporters- move 2 particles in opposite directions at the same time DIFFUSION IN ACTIVE MEMBRANES...using energy because moving from low to high, not high to low, which does not require energy (concentration gradient)  ATP is required to allow the cell to accumulate substances o Rate of transport depends on concentration of substrate and on concentration of ATP o 2 active mechanisms/ active transports use ATP  primary active transport- carrier protein as a transporter using energy primarily from ATP to move substances across the membrane  secondary active transport ATP and ion bind to the ATP­powered pump. 2 The ATP breaks down to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate (i) and releases energy, which powers the shape change in the ATP­powered  pump. As a result, the ion moves across the  membrane. 3   The ion and phosphate are released from the     ATP­powered pump. The pump resumes its original     shape (go to step 1). receptor proteins can attach to a A G protein complex will only associate with a receptor  that has a chemical signal bound to it. In its unassociated state, the α subunit of the G protein complex has  guanosine diphosphate (GDP) attached to it. specific chemical signal molecules (neurotransmitter or hormone) and act as an intercellular communication system o insulin binds to the insulin receptor and the cell does its job...if the receptor is deficient, then the cell is not going to move enough glucose into the cell and too much would be in the blood (diabetes) the receptor is fine but there is no signal, T1 diabetes o sodium will diffuse if the inside is negative (because it is positive)...Sodium always diffuses from inside to outside  Enzymes: some act to catalyze reactions at outer/inner surface of plasma membrane; surface cells of small intestine produce enzymes that digest dipeptides o most famous disaccharide is lactose...lactase cuts the bond between lactose... o amino acids cut by the membrane-bound enzyme from a dipeptide  TABLE 3.2****  Passive mechanisms: diffusion, osmosis...not energy, but concentration/electrical gradient from high to low (facilitated diffusion)  primary (ATP) and secondary (depends on the primary...more later, but just know that is depends on the primary) active transport need a source of energy  Passive processes are spontaneous o based on kinetic energy o from high to low...downhill o simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis  Diffusion is movement from higher to lower...water is important to allow the movement of substances until equilibrium is reached Specific Non­lipid­soluble molecules or ions molecules 2 1 Lipid­soluble Membrane molecules channel 3 Cogradiention Certain specific non­lipid­soluble molecules or ions diffuse through membrane channels. Other non­lipid­ 2soluble molecules or ions, for which membrane channels are not present in the cell, cannot enter the cell. Lipid­soluble m3lecules diffuse directly through the plasma membrane.  Other lipid-soluble substances are oxygen and carbon dioxide...fats and gasses...via simple diffusion (move from high to low without the help of anything)  water soluble substances that cannot cross the lipid bilayer use either the channels or the carriers, and the substances move from high to low with help via facilitated diffusion o the facilitator is the protein (channel or carrier) o ions/electrolytes use the channel o amino acids and glucose use the carrier


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