Notes on Blood
Notes on Blood Biol 3320
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3320 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lee Meserve in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Blood Vessel Structure • Supply Vessels - Arteries Larger a supply vessel, the greater the elastic lamina proportion Smaller a supply vessel, the greater the smooth muscle o Tunica Interna (intima) § Endothelium: Single layer of cells § Basement membrane: Connective tissue (collagen) § Internal elastic lamina: Can stretch and rebound, want this because pulse pushes blood o Tunica Media § Smooth muscle (circular): Layer of smooth muscle goes around the blood vessel § External elastic lamina: Can stretch and rebound o Tunica Externa (adventitia) Anchoring Layer Anchors the vessel in place to a degree. Keeps it from moving around • Conducting (Large or Elastic) Arteries o Tunica Interna § Thick internal elastic lamina § Lots of elastic because first to get the push § Don’t want to decrease the diameter with smooth muscle, maximize the volume it can handle § Large the supply vessel the smaller to proportion of smooth muscle in the wall o Tunica Media § Thin layers of smooth muscle § Thick external elastic lamina o Tunica Externa • Distributing (Medium or Muscular) Arteries o Tunica Interna o Tunica media § Much smooth muscle o Tunica Externa • Resistance (Small) Arteries, Venule o Tunica Interna § Little elastic lamina o Tunica media § Smooth muscle thick compared to lumen § Little elastic lamina o Tunica Externa § Very thin • Arterioles: Smallest resistance arteries, involved in regulating where blood will flow and involved in regulating blood pressure • Metarterioles: Connect to capillaries; muscle sphincters o Ring of smooth muscle that can cut off a capillary o Ex. blushing causes opening of capillaries in your cheeks, cutting off blood to digestive during stress • Exchange Vessels – Capillaries o Complete Capillaries: Least leaky § Endothelium and basal membrane § Endothelium goes all the way around § Stuff can go in and out o Fenestrated Capillaries: Somewhat leakier § Little pores that go all the way through the endothelial cells § Basement membrane § Lots in the kidneys because kidney has to filter blood o Sinusoids: Most leaky § Big gaps between endothelial cells and basement membranes § Get large molecules in and out of blood circulatory system ex. liver • Plasma albumin • Fibrinogen • Globulins • Fat breakdown products • Pituitary gland uses sinusoids too • Return Vessels – Veins o Do not pump o Low pressure, larger lumen than supply o Tunica intima (Interna) § No internal elastic lamina o Tunica media § Thin smooth muscle § No external elastic lamina o Tunica Externa (adventitia) § Generally, thin • Post capillary Venules o Very thin walled • Muscular Venules o Medium Veins § Endothelium of tunica Interna – valves o Large Veins § Ex inferior vena cava § Tunica media thickest layer Where is your blood right now?! • 84% in systemic circuit o 15% arteries o 64% veins o 5% capillaries • 9% in pulmonary circuit • 7% in the heart Functions of blood vessels • Supply vessels – High pressure, high resistance o Compliance with bolus from pump o Elastic rebound to provide flow o Regulation of flow to an organ o Small vessels with greater proportion of smooth muscle o General regulation of blood pressure o Rate at which pumping blood into supply vessel o Difficulty flowing through supply vessels o High pressure, high resistance system • Exchange vessels o Allow materials to enter and leave o Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure o Hydrostatic pressure (bp) o Osmotic pressure (solution of albumin inside the vessel in the blood plasma) o Out pressure greater than in pressure o Balance of pressure out and pressure in • Return vessels – Low pressure, low resistance • Valves help ensure one way flow Generation of Blood Pressure • Relationship between pressure, resistance and flow o Pressure = Flow * Resistance o Flow = Pressure (Gradient) / resistance o Resistance = Pressure/Flow • Poiseuille’s Equation Heart Rate • Sympathetic Nervous System • Parasympathetic Nervous System Stroke Volume • End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume Modification of Resistance • Viscosity: Increase RBC, decrease Albium • Vessel Diameter • Sympathetic Nervous System: Increase BP by constriction • Parasympathetic Nervous System: Decrease BP and Heart Rate Hemostasis • Blood plasma vs. Blood serum o Plasma is uncoagulated o Serum clotting factors have been used to form clots • Hemostasis o Preventing blood loss • Vascular Spasm o Vasoconstriction due to puncture of blood vessel o Vessel puncture § Collagen fibers attract the platelets § Pain, Vessel Damage, Serotonin § Pain relievers, attract platelets o Platelet Plug Formation § Platelet Adhesion Agglutination vs Coagulation • Agglutination o Antibodies will pull RBC together o Specific antibody and particulate antigen are both necessary • Coagulation o Lots of reactions that occur to make a blood clot form o Coagulation Pathways Extrinsic Mechanism • Damaged tissues like a puncture wound • If done in a test tube, would not always require platelets. In a human they’ll be there anyway though • Thromboplastic produced by extrinsic mechanism Intrinsic Mechanism • Damage starts inside the blood vessel like atherosclerotic plaque or injury from crushing tissue • Clotting factors produced by intrinsic mechanism • Initiation of Clotting o Prothrombinase from liver into the blood plasma à Converts inactive prothrombin into thrombin à fibrinogen comes out of solution and forms fibrin fibers which cover over the opening in the blood vessel slowing down the flow of blood o Thromboplastin, Extrinsic Clotting Factors, Intrinsic o Prothrombinase (Prothrombin Activator) o Prothrombin --> Thrombin § Thrombin: NOT WATER SOLUABLE o Fibrinogen --> Fibrin o Lysis of Clots o Plasminogen -> -> Plasmin o Dynamic Process • Anticoagulants – Heparin, Antithrombin o Also called blood thinners but don’t actually thin your blood o Heparin produced by cells that line blood vessels o Tiny little punctures all the time, heparin is used • Antithrombin: Prevents thrombin formation o Warfrin: Kills rats because rats can’t vomit § Anticoagulant, stops blood from clotting o Failure of Hemostasis: Hemophilia § Treatment • Remove clotting factors through apheresis from one person and infuse them in another, Sex-Linked, Occurs on the X chromosome Components of Blood Blood is a Tissue • 8-10 units of blood in you, Replace the volume on your own, takes longer to replace the red blood cells • Phoresis center, donate clotting factors, give you money for it Structural: Structural elements of a tissue are present • Formed elements, cells o Nervous system is mostly formed element, not much matrix • Non-cellular matrix o Bone and tendons have tons of non-cellular matrix o Brain o Organs surrounded by connective tissue don’t have much non-cellular matrix Functionally • All of the components work together to perform functions o Ex. muscle tissue function is to contract and relax o Nervous tissue conducts information from 1 part to another Separate Components of Blood • Think of blood as a motile connective tissue Matrix - Plasma • Blood plasma 55% o Slightly more abundant than the formed elements Formed Elements – “Cells” • -Blast is on it's way to becoming a cell --> Pluripotent stem cell • Functions 45% o RBC carry oxygen and some CO2, most abundant of the formed elements § Women have a variability in RBC due to menstruation o White blood cells fight off foreign invaders o Platelets assist in the clotting process • Blood Plasma – 55% o Non cellular matric o Blood plasma is contains clotting factor o Blood serum is blood plasma when clotting factor is removed • Mostly Water – approx. 92% o Means blood itself is about 91% water o Blood is 8% of your body weight Whole Blood, Plasma Components 1. Proteins - 7% • Albumin o Most abundant at 60% of the protein in blood plasma o Makes it less likely that a lot of water will leave the circulatory system through the capillaries, regulate amount of water in vascular exchange vessels § Osmosis stuff o If you have trouble making albumin… § Low protein intake makes it hard for the liver to produce albumin § Liver water is leaking into abdominal cavity § Can also happen due to chronic alcohol syndrome • Globulin o 36% of proteins in blood plasma, circle glob spaces o Alpha, beta, and gamma globulins o All antibodies are gamma globulins, ImmunoGlobulin (Ig) • Fibrinogen o 7% o Least abundant, major component of blood clots 2. Other Solutes • Digestion Products/Nutrients o Amino acid sequences are different in things like meat § Immune system could attack amino acid structures (protein) from other organisms § Amino acids are therefore broken down as far as possible o Complex carbs (starch) C6H12O6 § Mostly glucose gets absorbed from gut to circulatory system o Fat breakdown products § Broken down into Fatty acids/glycerol that can be absorbed § Associate with proteins • Nitrogenous wastes o Provide cells with energy through aminos o Ammonia gets converted using CO2 to urea and pee it out when filtered through kidney • Respiratory gases o Dissolved in the water of our blood plasma o RBC transport oxygen and CO2, but are dissolved in plasma until RBC pick them up • Regulatory substances o Enzymes o Hormones o Molecules of communication of immune system § Activating inactive WBC • Electrolytes o Sodium and Chloride ions § Sodium bicarbonate o Physicians care about electrolytes because the concentration can indicate types of problems § Sodium ion accumulation causes water retention in a tissue or area Whole Blood, Formed Elements 1.Erythrocytes – RBC • RBC in humans don’t have nuclei o More efficient at transporting oxygen because of concave disc shape o Oxygen inside an RBC is not far from the PM letting it out very easily • Red pigment is hemoglobin o 4 subunits which can bind 4 0 e2ch o Heme groups § O binds to the iron atom 2 • When RBC are going through capillaries where there isn’t much oxygen o Sickle Cell Anemia/Disease § Genetic mutation of the hemoglobin ABF § Result of 1 amino acid change in globin part of hemoglobin o Can’t get malaria if you have sickle cell anemia • Last about 120 days, constantly making new ones. Don't live long because the don't have a nucleus • RBC will burst after going through the smallest capillaries 2.Leukocytes - WBC • When first identified, light microscopy used acid and alkaline, caused it to look the way these are being named o Granular Leukocytes-Little Speckles § Neutrophils, most abundant at 65% • Don't stain with either dye and are neutral • Phagocytic, can engulf material and break it down • Chemotaxis is when cell is attracted to unusual site of puncture • Movement through wall of capillaries is diaphysis § Eosinophils, 4% • Stain with eosin dye • Respond to allergies and parasitic infection like malaria § Basophils, <1% • Stains blue • Small phagocytic activity o "Agranular" § Monocytes, 5% • Can leave circulation and set up another location to stay in place in various parts of the body • Macrophages: spaces in lungs, liver ect. That are the first cell to respond and develop a specific immunity § Lymphocytes, 25% • Elevated monocytes is a symptom of mononucleosis illness • Largest in size 3.Platelets –“Thrombocytes” • Not cells • Megakaryocytes o Big nucleated cells o Break off and get into circulatory system to form platelets • High platelet count o Can cause stroke Pluripotent stem cell: Hemopoietic stem cell can form into a RBC erythrocyte o Erythroblast still has nucleus and knows how to make itself. Later breaks down Macrophages: cell that started as an undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell in the bone marrow • Eat foreign stuff that comes along Blood Types Genetic Determination Antigens – Agglutinogens • Located on Red Cell Membrane • Determine Blood Type: can be done with a phenotype chart • A, B, Both, Neither Antibodies – Agglutinins • Anti-A, Anti-B, Both, Neither Transfusion Using ABO • Universal Donor: Neither antigen A or Antigen B, type O blood • Universal Recipient: Type AB Is this real? If someone is in surgery and they loose a lot of blood, when you are a universal recipient you can take whatever type of blood is the most plentiful in the blood bank Non Specific Transfusion: In a rush it can keep you alive, but you will create antigens against it. But if you require blood down the road it gets hard to receive blood because of all the antigens you have Rh: Found in Rhesus Monkeys • Genetic Determination – More Complex, as simple as the ABO systems, there area collection of genes that have input. If you have D antigen you are RH +, 85% of the population • Rh , Rh – • Rh Incompatibility: Occurs in pregnant women when they are pregnant with RH+ fetus there can be complications IgG Immunoglobin Erythroblastosis Fetalis: If you draw blood form umbilical cord from the fetus and that blood cells contain nuclei (erythroblast)then you would say it’s in the fetus. A nucleus in a RBC doesn’t allow enough oxygen carrying, and this is not normal Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: Newborn will look like it is having oxygen problems and be blue, because the antibodies that passes into the fetus are binding to the RBC and exploding them (Hemolysis). Can cause an abortion of the fetus -Used to be able to do a full fetal blood transfusion RhoGAM: every women who is different RH than her child will get this infused within a week after birth of her child. Anti-RH antibodies Gammaglbliun: variety that is a collection of all of your antibodies Rho: A
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