New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Discovery America III 1945-Present Week 3

by: Alison Holden

Discovery America III 1945-Present Week 3 Hon 160

Marketplace > University of Hartford > Honors > Hon 160 > Discovery America III 1945 Present Week 3
Alison Holden
University of Hartford

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Rise of the CIA, positives and negatives of 1950s, covert operations
Discovering America III: 1945-Present
Professor Cooley
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Discovering America III: 1945-Present

Popular in Honors

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Holden on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hon 160 at University of Hartford taught by Professor Cooley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Discovering America III: 1945-Present in Honors at University of Hartford.

Similar to Hon 160 at University of Hartford


Reviews for Discovery America III 1945-Present Week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/22/16
Discovering America III: 1945-Present Week Three Important Positives of the 1950s:  Rising Wages o “by 1956 the real income of an average American was more than 50 percent greater than it had been in 1929 . . .” (Dubofsky and Theoharis). o This gives American families more spending money for leisure items  Growing Economy  Family sized increased  Birth of the suburbs o Many people started building homes outside the city o More people could commute to work and live in a friendlier neighborhood o A large yard with kids and a white picket fence and a good job became the American Dream o Businesses moved where the people are and the suburbs grew rapidly  Technology rapidly improved o Television is the symbol of wealth in America at the time  Politians benefited from the invention of the television because they can use it for propaganda.  1960s in the Presidential debates Kennedy vs Nixon o People listening on the radio thought Nixon was the winner of the debates, but those who watched it on television believed JFK was more charismatic during the debates  Families bonded over watching television together o Medical Advances = longer life span  Interstate Highway System was built by Eisenhower o People could move around the country faster and easier o Was actually built for military purposes. During the cold war they built it in case military had to move to an area around the country quickly  Decline in poverty, much improved standard of living  Political Consensus o Much of America was on the same page on political debates  Many agreed to take a strong stand against the Soviet Union  Progress was made in Congress  To compare, currently the US is in Political Disagreement. Nothing gets done in Congress even for decisions needed ASAP due to disagreement. Happened in the 60s as well.  Space Programs – innovation  Credit Card system o Spending money increases, boosting the economy  National Debt was a Surplus Negatives of the 1950s Racism and Segregation Female gender stereotypes- stay at home with kids, not many worked McCarthyism and the Red Scare created paranoia throughout America Rise of the CIA Drawback to the Space Programs o Costly, conservatives liked it and liberals saw it as a waste of money Drawbacks of credit- people were racking up a lot of debt Drawbacks of suburbs o Businesses followed and moved out of the city o Decreasing farmland o Mass consumerism o City Decay  Tax revenue decreased  Ex: Hartford Poor Safety Standards Rise of the CIA Modeled after Office of Strategic Services- gathered intelligence during WWII about Germany and performed covert actions  Was established in 1947 after WWII from an act of Congress (National Security Act of 1947)  Main job was to collect intelligence about Soviet Union Four Division of the CIA: Intelligence Division o Gathered intelligence using spies under cover in other countries  Operations Division o Performed covert operations  Technology Division o Helped the intelligence division with new discoveries and inventions (ex: satellites)  Administrative Division o Employment, budgeting, salary, accounting, secretary, etc.… Eisenhower’s changes to CIA  Elected in 1952, came to office 1953 o Truman didn’t run because the Korean War began under Truman and people were out raged o Eisenhower vs Stevenson  Eisenhower was a general in WWII  Not in the same political party as Truman  First thing he did in office was end the war in Korea  Changed the way the CIA was ran: Wanted to focus on covert operation more o Why?  Being a general in WWII he saw covert action be successful in operations such as D-Day at Normandy.  If it worked against a Fascist power- why wouldn’t work on Communist Powers?  Changes to leaders of CIA o Eisenhower selects Allen Dulles as the director of Central Intelligence  He worked with OSS during WWII  Agreed with Eisenhower’s philosophy of covert action over intel. o Selected his brother for secretary of state (John Dulles) Plausible Deniability o When an event or information cannot be traced back to the source o America was accused of many covert operations due to how the outcome benefitted America and cause  Ex: Iran Covert Operations through the CIA (information from reading handout The Cycles of American History) The Domino Theory – Eisenhower believed that once one country fell, it was more likely that other countries near it would also fall to communism o Iran- US overthrew Mosadegh (a nationalist who as thought to be a tool in Moscow)  The oil industry that was there internationally would be localized by the Iranian government putting a lot of international companies out of business.  Restored the Shan, which was later overthrown in the 1970’s because he was thought to be an “American puppet o Guatemala- overthrew Arbenz regime in 1954  There was a fear that communism would spread all the way to Mexico  United Fruit Company would lose business Failures o Assassination attempts on Castro and Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba o Bay of Pigs (will be discussed further in week 4 notes) o Attempt to overthrow Indonesian government o Attempt to overthrow Laos Why did the US government not stop even though there were many failures? (possibilities) o Author believed Eisenhower was paranoid and did not think rationally. o Government was made to keep control of all parts by checks and balances. It was believed that the government was not keeping good checks on the CIA’s actions. There needed to be more oversight of covert action of the CIA o Executive leaders were not focused o Many operations were hidden from checks from government


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.