Discovery America III 1945-Present Week 3
Discovery America III 1945-Present Week 3 Hon 160
University of Hartford
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Holden on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hon 160 at University of Hartford taught by Professor Cooley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Discovering America III: 1945-Present in Honors at University of Hartford.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Discovering America III: 1945-Present Week Three Important Positives of the 1950s: Rising Wages o “by 1956 the real income of an average American was more than 50 percent greater than it had been in 1929 . . .” (Dubofsky and Theoharis). o This gives American families more spending money for leisure items Growing Economy Family sized increased Birth of the suburbs o Many people started building homes outside the city o More people could commute to work and live in a friendlier neighborhood o A large yard with kids and a white picket fence and a good job became the American Dream o Businesses moved where the people are and the suburbs grew rapidly Technology rapidly improved o Television is the symbol of wealth in America at the time Politians benefited from the invention of the television because they can use it for propaganda. 1960s in the Presidential debates Kennedy vs Nixon o People listening on the radio thought Nixon was the winner of the debates, but those who watched it on television believed JFK was more charismatic during the debates Families bonded over watching television together o Medical Advances = longer life span Interstate Highway System was built by Eisenhower o People could move around the country faster and easier o Was actually built for military purposes. During the cold war they built it in case military had to move to an area around the country quickly Decline in poverty, much improved standard of living Political Consensus o Much of America was on the same page on political debates Many agreed to take a strong stand against the Soviet Union Progress was made in Congress To compare, currently the US is in Political Disagreement. Nothing gets done in Congress even for decisions needed ASAP due to disagreement. Happened in the 60s as well. Space Programs – innovation Credit Card system o Spending money increases, boosting the economy National Debt was a Surplus Negatives of the 1950s Racism and Segregation Female gender stereotypes- stay at home with kids, not many worked McCarthyism and the Red Scare created paranoia throughout America Rise of the CIA Drawback to the Space Programs o Costly, conservatives liked it and liberals saw it as a waste of money Drawbacks of credit- people were racking up a lot of debt Drawbacks of suburbs o Businesses followed and moved out of the city o Decreasing farmland o Mass consumerism o City Decay Tax revenue decreased Ex: Hartford Poor Safety Standards Rise of the CIA Modeled after Office of Strategic Services- gathered intelligence during WWII about Germany and performed covert actions Was established in 1947 after WWII from an act of Congress (National Security Act of 1947) Main job was to collect intelligence about Soviet Union Four Division of the CIA: Intelligence Division o Gathered intelligence using spies under cover in other countries Operations Division o Performed covert operations Technology Division o Helped the intelligence division with new discoveries and inventions (ex: satellites) Administrative Division o Employment, budgeting, salary, accounting, secretary, etc.… Eisenhower’s changes to CIA Elected in 1952, came to office 1953 o Truman didn’t run because the Korean War began under Truman and people were out raged o Eisenhower vs Stevenson Eisenhower was a general in WWII Not in the same political party as Truman First thing he did in office was end the war in Korea Changed the way the CIA was ran: Wanted to focus on covert operation more o Why? Being a general in WWII he saw covert action be successful in operations such as D-Day at Normandy. If it worked against a Fascist power- why wouldn’t work on Communist Powers? Changes to leaders of CIA o Eisenhower selects Allen Dulles as the director of Central Intelligence He worked with OSS during WWII Agreed with Eisenhower’s philosophy of covert action over intel. o Selected his brother for secretary of state (John Dulles) Plausible Deniability o When an event or information cannot be traced back to the source o America was accused of many covert operations due to how the outcome benefitted America and cause Ex: Iran Covert Operations through the CIA (information from reading handout The Cycles of American History) The Domino Theory – Eisenhower believed that once one country fell, it was more likely that other countries near it would also fall to communism o Iran- US overthrew Mosadegh (a nationalist who as thought to be a tool in Moscow) The oil industry that was there internationally would be localized by the Iranian government putting a lot of international companies out of business. Restored the Shan, which was later overthrown in the 1970’s because he was thought to be an “American puppet o Guatemala- overthrew Arbenz regime in 1954 There was a fear that communism would spread all the way to Mexico United Fruit Company would lose business Failures o Assassination attempts on Castro and Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba o Bay of Pigs (will be discussed further in week 4 notes) o Attempt to overthrow Indonesian government o Attempt to overthrow Laos Why did the US government not stop even though there were many failures? (possibilities) o Author believed Eisenhower was paranoid and did not think rationally. o Government was made to keep control of all parts by checks and balances. It was believed that the government was not keeping good checks on the CIA’s actions. There needed to be more oversight of covert action of the CIA o Executive leaders were not focused o Many operations were hidden from checks from government
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