Test 1 notes
Test 1 notes HSCI 2230
Popular in Intro to microbiology
Popular in Microbiology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by leonardct on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSCI 2230 at East Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Pritchett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to microbiology in Microbiology at East Tennessee State University.
Reviews for Test 1 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/22/16
Test 1 Doing well in class 1. Come 2. Study a. Review notes b. Go through PowerPoints c. Put notes away d. Study w/ someone Evidence Based Medicine gone through procedures and policies 1. Hypothesiscomes by observation turns into a question 2. Prediction going to predict what happens 3. Test always have to have methods; trials Everything based on scientific methods 4. Results make conclusions 5. Theory 100’s/1000’s of times tested Pseudomonas Infection can get in the hospital, environment, from wearing contacts affects any part of the body including tissue inhale, break in the skin, intubation, glove contamination clagans; live in the soil and eats bacteria; worm o pseudomonas tried to get around it by sending out toxins and killing the worm elderly and infant’s immune systems compromised Cystic Fibrosis mutation in genes not able to move the mucus, have to manually bacteria sit there and build up 80% of infections are caused by biofilms Bacteria in lungs start to produce their selves and produce aeruginosa Mucoidsnotty looking film, patient getting worse, shows up after about a decade Average age of death 42 Microorganisms Fungi only a person with immune compromised problems o Ex: HIV Protozoa water that doesn’t freeze, enters through nose into brain and makes it mush Viruses have to take over something else, genome editing (helps fix faulty genes) Crisper Cast 9 Dr. Pritchett works on pseudomonas aeruginosa Evidence based method: relies on the use of scientific method Most viruses cannot be seen with the light microscope #1 killer in the US heart disease Zika Virus smaller than bacteria made up of RNA not DNA (nucleic acid and protein) transmitted by mosquito pregnant woman can have children w/smaller heads IS the cause of microcephalus? o Study being tested on pregnant mice Can be found in urine and semen Everyone can get it 25% of the people do not know they have it Everything depending on how well you are and how much you were injected Can get tested Flavi virus other relatives yellow fever, west Nile virus Vector borne disease transmitted by mosquito and sexually Infection may present with no symptoms o Asystematic o Very general symptoms o Have to have history of mosquito bites and going where it is o Pregnant woman has higher risk Microcephalus child o No none time period of how long it stays in system o Guillen barre system muscle paralysis, body overreaction to some type of antibodies, messes mostly with muscles 7090% campylobacters in chicken Eats away all of your tissues Autoimmune response that attacks peripheral nerves and leads to paralysis Immune system overreacts A vaccine is currently available for yellow fever (a close relative) scientist currently trying to substitute Zika virus protein for yellow fever protein to see if it works Do not know who they give the vaccine too Been around since 1947 South east and African viruses Obtained in the US in 2004 at the world cup Salmonella Fecal/oral transmission Diarrhea o Can get it from salmonella o Toxin ingestions Organisms that end up in your intestines Bloody diarrhea does not give antibiotics Normally sick 720 days, no hospital stay unless you are dehydrated Ecoli have to have oral hydration o Sichatoxin attack the kidneys o 1015 bacteria Ended up with a bunch of these because of cattle (manure) NEVER eat raw hamburger Can get salmonella from anywhere Diarrheogenic pathogens bacterial or viral parasites o EHC& Salmonella bacteria There’s good Ecoli and there is bad EHEC is bad strain has evolved from getting new genes that allow bacteria to make shigatoxin destroys the intestinal epithelial cells and causes capillaries to leak causing bloody diarrhea When EHEC infects it sits on top of the cell and secretes the toxins No antibiotics should be given if EHEC infection is suspected The shigatoxin can damage kidney’s cells leading to hemdytic uremic syndrome in cells and grows& kills these cells leading to diarrhea Most foodborne pathogenstransmitted fecal or oral Hospital Infections(nosocomial) Cdiff o Forms a spore and is very resistant o Autoclave (cleaning high heat& pressure) o Clostridium difficile Bacteria o Gram positive o First identified in 1930’s o Antibiotic associated diarrhea and inflammation of the colon Anaerobic bacteria produce spores Resides in the intestines Transmitted by the fecal/ oral route very strong smell have to have stool sample to test for it o spores can stay in affected area for extended periods of time patient have to be put in contact isolation and gowns and gloves have to be worn o patient who was in the room before another patient and had Cdiff can give it to the patient even if the room is clean o has become a major problem in more and more hospitals recently CRE carbopenemresistant enterobacteriaceae o high level of resistance to antibiotics o normal bacteria get infected in your body such as KPC (klebsiella pneumoniae) and NDM (new delta metalliobeta lactamase) break down carbapenems and make them ineffective o healthy people do not get CREusually happens to people in hospitals, nursing homes and other healthcare facilities o happens to patients with ventilators, Foleys, IV catheters, and patients taking long time antibiotics o most CRE bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics infections are hard to treat, can be deadly found in the bowels and the feces colonizes in the intestines causing UTI’s, wound infections, pneumonia o hospitals have to be very careful w/ hand washing more at risk the sicker you are and the longer you stay and people who have taken antibiotics o shed in the feces, urine or wounds, if infected skin, hands, and bedding door knobs, bedrail, light switches, toilets, and bathroom equipment can be spread if gloves are not worn or wash hands/ germx blood pressure cuffs, thermometers can be contaminated if not cleaned o patient has signs/symptoms of infection but if colonized no symptoms o treatment very few antibiotics can treat this ESBL extended spectrum betalactamases o enzymes that resist most betalactam antibiotics penicillin’s, cephalosporin’s and the monobactum aztrenam o gram negative o 26,000 drug resistant infections o 1,700 deaths o 140,000 infections a year Atoms Molecules proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates Viruses between the two Cells bacteria, other microbes, our own cells Tissues/ Multicellular organisms In order to understand diseases, you have to understand molecular events that happen between the pathogens of the host molecular interactions e.g.: toxins interacting w/ a host cell that leads to the cell of death How does the cell die? It is due to the membrane becoming leaky, might interfere w/ some internal function How do antibiotics work? Antibiotics interfere w/ bacterial growth Atoms Atomic # is determined by the # of protons most atoms found in pure form are electrically neutral therefore if an atom has an atomic # of 6 then its atom has 6 protons & electrons Electron shells/ orbitals have to have a certain # of electrons in each to be stable st o 1 orbital 2 electrons o 2 orbital 8 electrons o 3 orbital 8 to be stable, but can have 18 total Octet rule atoms are happy, nonreactive, if they have 8 electrons in the outermost electron orbital/shell H is the exception b/c it only has 1 proton and 1 electron (atomic#= 1) C has atomic # of 6 o 2 ‘c” in first orbital o 4 “c” in second meaning carbon needs 4 electrons The electronic configuration of an atom determines its stability 8 electrons in the outer shell= happy Valence of atoms refers to # of electrons in outermost electron orbital/shell Ionic bonds can form between atoms when electrons are donated or received o This leads to the formation of ions Cations positively charged (more proteins than electrons) Anions negatively charged (more electrons than protons) o Atoms that share electrons form covalent bonds nonpolar: equally shared electrons between atoms polar: unequal distribution of electrons around 1 atom (the electrons that are shared are formed predominately around 1 atom) electronegativity determines what kind of bond will form between 2 atoms o increases when you go to the right, besides the noble gases drastic differences between electro negativities can result in ionic bonds, where the resulting molecule is made up of charged ions (cations and anions) NaCl Na= positive charged b/c it donated an electron to Cl (cation) Cl= negative charged (anion) Ionic Polar covalent Non Bond H20 polar NaCl Cl2, O2 Carbon Atoms Valence of 4, so they can share up to 4 electrons w/ other atoms o CH bond is non polar o CC bond is non polar o CO bond is polar H has an electronegativity of 2.1 and C has an electronegativity of 2.5 the difference between the two is 0.4 o Anytime the difference between electronegativity is 0.4 or less we will have a nonpolar bond 0 has an electronegativity of 3.5 o When CO interacts the difference between the 2 is 1 b/c the difference in the electronegativity differs more between CO then between CH the CO bond is polar polar covalent bonds, CO, HOH, lead to a molecule w/ partial charges due to unequal sharing in the case of H2O, we have polar covalent bonds, that allow the atoms of 1 H2O molecule to be attracted to other H2O molecules the attraction forces in aqueous solutions result in H bonds, which are actually attraction forces due to the partial charge characters of the atoms interacting between molecules the electronegative O atom in 1 H2O molecule is attracted to H atoms in another H2O molecule b/c of the H atom having a partially positive charge so when we say that cohesive properties (think of surface tension) it’s because the water molecules are interacting w/ one another and have attractive forces (Abonds) between the molecules water is also a heat stabilizer a product of polar covalent bonds in H2O in aqueous environment o water= solvent (considered universal solvent b/c it can “dissolve” lots of substances) o a solute is the stuff dissolved in the solvent as a solvent, H2O can “dissolve” substances that are ionic or have a polar nature o water “dissolves” stuff by having the H2O molecules interact w/ ionic molecules and molecules w/ polar covalent bonds in them. H forces allow the H2O molecules to interact w/ the solutes to form these hydration shells Acids, Bases, and Buffers Phlog scale, higher H+ the lower the Ph o Ranges from 014 Acids vs. bases: acids donate protons while bases accept protons Buffersresist Ph change Legionella pneumophila Respiratory disease caused by the legionella bacteria o Causes a serious type of pneumonia called Legionnaires’ disease o Or an infection called Pontiac fever, similar symptoms to the flu Found in freshwater environments o Ex: lakes, streams Can also be found in hot tubs, hot water tanks, large plumbing systems, cooling towers, and decorative fountains Spreads by being in contaminated water then people bringing in the mist in droplets, even though its less common can be spread from aspiration of water Not spread from one person to the next People at risk o People over 50 o Current or former smokers o People with chronic lunch disease o People with weak immune systems o People who take medicines that suppress the immune system Rumen Microbiology Ruminant(Digastric) Bacteria, protozoa, and fungi in cow’s rumen Rumen bacteria o Fiber digesters “fussiest bacteria Sensitive to acid Primarily make acetate o Starch ad sugar digesters Make up a significant amount of the rumen bacteria Cows are normally fed about 30% starches and sugars o Lactate using bacteria Includes the rumen weed Strong acid with lactic acid Helps clean up the rumen and raise rumen pH, making the growth of the acidintolerant fiberdigesters o Hydrogenusing bacteria Under normal rumen conditions hydrogen doesn’t accumulate in the rumen Rumen Protozoa o Are predators to the bacteria, eat the bacteria, 40 times the size of bacteria o Produce fermentation endproducts, acetate, butyrate, and hydrogen o Eat large amounts of starch and store them in their bodies o Can help slow down the production of acid and lower the rumen pH o Multiply very slowly, hide out in the slower moving fiber mat Rumen Fungi o Attach to feed particles and reproduce slowly o Help out the fiberdigesting bacteria by splitting fibrous material Human Microbiota
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'