Week of Notes from classes on March 23/25
Week of Notes from classes on March 23/25 HIST1011
Popular in History since the 1500s
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Popular in History
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Rewerts on Sunday March 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Hugh Agnew in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see History since the 1500s in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/29/15
Minx History 101 110World History since 1500 hLWWVQmmMMwu u i anquot i Leanne I ndustry and Society Machines Manufacturing arrd L crab WW WC allocation L1fe1ndustr1a1 Cities 1W Jr 39 been b f Shednearsomcesdmmam gdtenmral 25 3 WW Q Tenement housa apartments Factories cluster workers close by Stores folluwtoselltoworken mam Mo w 0 Effect on environment and health oisepollutionsiclmesspuvenyaime 5 1 7 V v r Rickemmutri mulda ciencylankdvmnbecauseofm CMJA I I r A1 6 m gmmwummmmw 3 or We E cli H39sM A 0K Shir 2 U J 39 0mm Cf f Ci15013 L411 1 39 77 4 rquot 1w 91quot wow i 1 1 g it DAD A j Qflt39gfglml mp lt T ax U 1 f 16 W Luci Pawn r r 7 if 11 gt 5i Shef eld England in the midnineteen 1 century industry still nestled in a countryside with traditional life exisung beside it r m v umx39v M39 l 39 J x 2 v a l xlmfl fu amp Ww g ag f 9 5 Q km n r v NC in for l T Mk1f ll DE JJd C igt f L 4 m L E39EQ 5 Mirmagi A Glasgow slum from 3 Jl the 1870s illustrates the crowding poor 39 sanitation and lack of sunlight typical of the industrial tenements 395 I It 7 f LI of the mneteenth century f Two Attitudes Towards A f if Industrialization 39 39 r 1 I A x g f w if 3 Optimist Samuel Smiles Till 4 U J s4 l SelfHelpquot a motto 39 x I f of Rags to riches theme quot 39 Beloved of industrialists since a f 1 P h o Pessimist Karl Marx Kw F 57 QM quot i39Wt if Predicted increasing pauperization of f f f proletariat Class warfare KR Rf l J JL Eventual result he said would be revolution quot39 l quot 39 Time proved him wrong or did it 39 Wm x J W y it f quot f l r I 6 R g Wl 1 xh J V3 sf a j I J 1 I MW Jf l aft V i 73lfLLw 1M if W3 r i L 139 gt1 l v r I L quot 5 x V Qquot r y Ml VlJff NCGQAE 9 W 2 Mum1mg a adult 2 Whamquot NM 113 mum mi 1 Industry and Social Structures ClassBased Society Industria1 Proletariat k ArnfgthSZies Upper Class quot quotI H I 5 WIquot F M Rm 5 Invest in industry L j IN j Lyf Marry nouveaurichax a w 95 g u x i 17 tm Globalized Industrial Economy 9 Europe center of manufacturing Mechanized industrial products destroyed European hand crafts Cheap European goods forced collapse of native production in other regions oAgriculture for export Typical products livestock palm oil cotton grain indigo tea opium Farmers forced to focus on single cash crop vulnerable to crop failure or market fluctuation The armpitsmter opera house in Mm Brazil in the Mason ralnlorest Proposed in the 18805 built between 1885 and 1886 it was opened with apertormance one Giaconda in 1897 By 1910xuhber seeds muggled out ofBrazil and planted in Malaya had ov 5 l 5 r quot If 5 939 I MW if x l A Impact of Industrialization End of Forced Labor t a g it M in lm Arguments agamst slavery r quot 3 39 Evangelical Christianity L L 39 Political Liberalism uquot v Economic Free Trade Gradual abolition TradeinSlaves Denmark 1803 Britain 1807 f q z 7 I i Abolition Latin America lBZOs lBBOs British 5 a g v for J N K Empire 1834France 1848Nether1ands 1863 U V x j 39 l 1 39 United States 1865 and Brazil 1888 j t Survived in Africa and Middle East for some time turf thereafter but gradually faded Meeting of InternationalAnti Slavery Society 5quot I l 39 London1840 J EU I I is tff I l Other Labor Changes A w quot quot 1 A n o Serfdom East of the Elbe Abolished in Prussia after Napoleonic Wars t AustriaHungary after 1848 revolution completed in 185354 53 lt 211 Russia abolished serfdom in 1861 Iapanese traditional peasant collectives broken up into individual farms 1 t f e a E39 New Kinds of Forced Labor quot I quot a 2 e Convict Labor quot 39 Used in Japan Europe Australia Siberia and the United 1 4r States 1 quot i 9 Women and Children in Industry 1 z Textileswomen and children l K g kg I Mining children used for especially dangerous 1 i i I39 i quot atquot l physically tight conditions Pay for women and children lower 0 Coolie Labor China and India Hquot quotmquot xmrNM u Often deported or kidnapped kept in servitude Xxx 5A 5 p I a Frequently used as railroad or other heavy construction quot a quot i it L workers that would formerly have been slaves p w Ifquot if 51 1 I f 5 We gt 11539 I 4 r i x r l m 4 a v i t l 5 The Memento Manama Labor in the um minimum Century m mmncmawmen v mmmm 3 g Tea picker on a British tea plantation in Sri Lanka Ceylon 1 8905 Patterns of global migration during the nineteenth and eany twentieth centuries 1 i 397 39 Industrialization and its Impact o Industrialization biggest change in our existence since the agricultural revolution What was affected by industrialization Cities and institutions Most jobs Class structures horizontal wealth determined 9 Benefits of industrialization Increased comfort and productivity Slavery and sert dom ended 9 Costs of industrialization Coolie labor railroads 4 WV W jim if 135 3quot m quot l git 71 I v J DQMg CUV it If A Hm 53 M 139 ifquot 39 3 351 U7 i Child labor mining Women textiles a key part of making the West dominant History 101 110Wor1d History since 1500 lecture 16The Rise if European Dominated Empires in the Nineteenth Century f a 393 Ewan ti W Impetus to Empire Economics Requirements of Industry Mechanization and mass production need raw materials Europe itsle is mangepom Rest of xewu dvim assomceohawmate s Labor force needed to extract or produce raw materials Europe s own population is insuf cient for those tasks Inhabitants of the rest of the world seen as source of iabor 1 393 i g 1quot is W 15 11 xture m 5113 1 E i 11 quot 733 1 5 51 v I 39 1 W mt 5 Impetus to Empire continued 9 Mechanized Production Requires capital investrnent present in Europe and America Barking and also already in Europe Transportation to and from markets steam and rail to Markets Need large ready places to sell production Domestic markets did exist but capacity to produce exceeded demand Senmgonaghbalmgemeradmym T m LMK 4 r1 1quot I r1 1 quot i 2quot 1 1 d a 1 M1 Consequences o Colonies Had resources with enough labor to extract or pmdnce them m the same time provided markets to purchase me products of industry 0 Result profits for Europe who controlled resources production financing markets o Wealth and growing economy created more demand for foreign products KW vs Ul y 1 U 4 Colo15 HM quot 1 v lt1 k Ifquot 1 15quot 2quot w 397 39 I A 1 5 r I 2 v is I Myquot l L cluf t E g i l 1 EN Wm 35 Wilt at W s at W A I Jim 4 H C mi 7 9M 1 J 1 5 i g f i p 10 Mm pf Building Empire China Defeated Centuries of trade imbalance China had products the outside world wanted but not vice versa Trade was tightly controlled and focused on port of Guangzhou Canton 0 Opium changed situation Altered trade balance product of British Indian possessions Created addicts stimulating demand q EHA39fo a amesJ file i 4 u miif 1535quot 44 VJ l 13 fig Jim 39V I 39 39 The First Opium War 5 s i 18391842 W vi 39 7 7 PM 3 Jaf British force war over Chinese attempt to end ligf A h E 50 iii opium imports n 1 a A g Better weapons technologysteamships x Qfgl fl l i a 1 i 391 439 5 BritaingainsHongKungandaocessto vemmeports China pays huge indemnity for war I c Other European countries and United States a gain similar commercial rights in g is 9 Beginning of further wars that gradually wore gigsifquot u down Chinese economy and morale q Janmi I g T if R7603quot V MW a2 Y 1 F f 3 quot39 I g 1 if rquot Conunissioner Lin n 7f I 61 re 1 cm mung 39 39 V Czar destroys p E i lt opium confiscated r a f i fromBritish quot I 457 1541 merchants at Guangzhouin 1339 Q U U B tish 39n39onclad quotNemesisquot destroys Chinese eet off Guangzhou 1841 gt 39 f 1 j ilk 1 3r 1 e akilrs European Imperialism in Asia 1840 l 9 10 6 Technology Steam 9 Indirect Rule Native troops of cered by Europe Native elites as administrators Less expensive quotStranger effectquot Europeans as arbitrate British in India probably best example W ww Military technology Maxim gun L If d 0er Methods of Imperial Expansion Development of chronometer 39 E v quot l 1 2 T I A j 39 W j J t A l wquot 4 m 4 NJL r M M I x quot K a W 991 39r l i l39 y Lurk 7quot N ARM V Ni N 2 Mark WM 391 r r 31 Lf l Indirect rule on display Hench Ambassador with King of Cambodia 1920 39 C e a r x JE REM Mm r 5 Jquot I X I I I 1 n I I v 3 yquot a M 9 milLO af WWW 10 Jake L 0 JV 39 Spreading Empire Building New Europes 9 Where climate similar to Europe settlers displace natives establish societies similar to Europe co United States War with Britain 1812 and Mexico 1845 Con ict diseases destroy Native American compe torv 1939J1 Century Purchase territory from France 1803 and Russia 1867 Hawaii annexed other Paci c Islands Puerto Rico and dominance over Cuba through war with Spain 18905 Other New Europes 9 Canada 1867 Quebec and British Canada joined re VII Uth l U 39 39M a a quotquot H 1 LR f fn u Natives displaced1gnored A I if a A 394 g j 3 Outrmmbered b yEuropeandescended settlers 3 railroad stitches country together across its a southern border 5 Ammma r t L W Sheep cattle and mining Vva NR 4 k I A Viquot Aboriginal peoples destroyed by disease and war p Settlers outnumber natives Eh i Vaxwouver British Columbia beginning of 2039h Century ti i f 5 fl c Still Other New Europes New Zealand War with the Maori in the 18805 Settlers outnumber natives I r it aQ X SouthAfrica W squot quot p i x w British Boers Black Africans x a I V s British give Boers rule over Blacks Q m Algeria t x a i it is t A i French conquest 1330s gt i A VENT g 2 ff1gth it ti ft if rf European colonization never outnumbers native g l 1 population Wg i Guerilla resistance develops18705 L 1 2 J DP WdentY39 NW F W I 1399 Other Forms of Empire Business Imperialism Local elites seek control gtforeign investment gtforeign control of technologies of production and transport O Om f i i 01 K o Dependency on foreign markets and titancity i 6 Political control by foreign businessme Latin America classic example quot 5 l V A u British investment in Latin America from 18701913 accounts for twothirds United States also a major recipient of investment from Britain and other European countries idDHr J t quot t39 V i I I 4 r j 7 31 MR UILUl U IU Poster for United Fruit Company s cruise lines in the Caribbean early 20 century a If new I 0 Russia Baltic States Poland the Crimea and into Central and East Asia meets growing Japanese Empire in 1905 Brief notion of expansion into the Paci c Vladivostok founded 1860 Russia sold Alaska to us 1867 Japan Asian empire to avoid China s mistakes with industrial state and modern army Islands dominance in Korea Expansion onto mainland and success in Competing with and confronting the European powers L War with China 18941895 Taiwan and the Pescadore Newcomers to Empire v 39 V M 3r 3 am and am Expansion mm Justifying Empire Science Darwin The Origin of Species by Natural Selection 1859 Nature selects fittest who survive and breed e Social Darwinism Crude application of eVolutionary theory to society Race Species some are superior to others Comte de GobineauWhites most advanced Blacks least advanced others in between y ijibfa f39 ii frf m 5 35 C iiiquot21quot k1 939 a W fthW il fzrf quotf4 Superior Morality or Superior Morale e quotCivilizing Mission an expression of natural and moral superiority of West Europe Fear of rise or recovery of Asian powers Yellow Peril Balance sheet of imperialism questions moral superiority Maybe were just feeling the excitement that comes from success F 4 i Mfr m
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