POL 336 week 2
POL 336 week 2 POL 336
Popular in POLITICS OF MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA
Popular in History of Africa and the Middle East
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kincaid Lathram on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 336 at Miami University taught by Professor Michael Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see POLITICS OF MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA in History of Africa and the Middle East at Miami University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Why does the Zionist-Palestinian Conflict keep raging on? lack of diplomacy, international PE, power relations, cohesion between the arab world and Israel Territory and religion refugee/ diaspora proxy wars apartheid human rights genocide Truncation purposely reducing the number of explanatory variables o focus only on those that are Theoretically relevant o theoretical relevance is dictated by previous literature o political science evolves through the process of truncation o truncation also allows us to test theories across many states and years limits of truncation o potentially important variables missing from every model o increased emphasis on model construction rather than theoretical development o replication most similar systems approach (MSS) o comparing similar cases using qualitative or quantitative methods o despite being similar cases there are differences in the variables Most different systems approach (MDS) o Comparing very different cases that share the same dependent variable o Many studies using MDS have been since debunked o Cases themselves are considered the cause of change in a dependent variable What is a theory? a testable scientific story of a relationship between two or more variables backed by previous knowledge and observations theories are important in the study of comparative government why? dependent variables independent variables Rational Choice theory therefore we assume that leaders are o strategic rational actors o cognitive thinkers decision making is dependent upon a leaders expected utility of pursuing each possible action leaders engage in cost-benefit analyses o affected by levels of information o affected by the quality of information Rational choice Assumption rationality is an Un-falsifiable characteristic o therefore we make the assumption that all political actors are rational o this assumption allows us to generalize behavior across the population of cases o political actors in the MENA region are particularly rational in their decision-making Modernization Modernization refers to one of the scientific theories of political development The idea is that the process of political development is linked to economic indicators Size of the Middle Class Gross Domestic Product PQLI Many Mena politicians refer to modernization as the root cause behind current politics in the region Economic Development Changes in economic environment seem to affect political development over time o Ie: nuclear weapons, oil Industrialization v. Agriculture Austerity Measures Interstate Trade Globalization Technological Innovation (Labour Specialization, Communication) Sociological Origins Durjheim (1893)- first to systematically study the division of government o Used economics to understand differences in government administration o Functional development should be a function of the complexity of society Using Durkheims Logic how has your country’s functional development led to the current regime change? Modernization Theory Seymour Lipset (1959) Uses structural functionalism to understand political th development in the 20 century Theory: Economic Development increases the likelihood of political development in the rohbust Karl Deutsch (1961)- bottom up grass roots approach to revolution Social Mobilization theory Industrialization is not a casual mechanism Industrialization leads to the breakdown of conservative ideologies and social norms Changes in sociopolitical norms and ideals create o Demands for better education and public works o New ideas of just regime types o Opportunities to new leaders Almond and Coleman Economic Modernization creates national crises causes people to get new ideas that challenge the status quo and people revolt o Identity: Traditional social ties broken or redefined o Legitimacy: Old political institutions lack the ability to rule o Participation: Rising expectations of the populace o Penetration: Need of linkage institutions with the Governed o Distribution: New Groups = New Demands on current government structures Identity Crisis: Qatar 2007-2012 Qatar has the fastest growing middle class in the world o Women have become more important for the economy o Massive economic modernization (away from oil) o Capital Flight from EU, Russia, and Saudi Smaller GCC (accepting outsourcing) o Despite advancement 78% of Qataris feel that the country is not modernizing and is not meeting its potential as international player o Massive problem with organized crime (human trafficking) Qatari Reformation: Middle Class demands on al Thani Regime o Increased access to higher education College Education guaranteed for Qatari citizens o Increased access to interstate trade agreements Begin Trading Agreements with Iran, BRICS, MINTAS Particularly with states normally not associated with the GCC o Increased position in world politics Renegotiated Military Alliances with NATO, began funding rebel organizations (Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, and have expanded to Africa, Asia) o Constitutional reforms and leadership transition Extrajudicial Killing and Torture have been abolished, King transitioned leadership to his son