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FYS Week 4 Canvases and Careers

by: merlec16

FYS Week 4 Canvases and Careers FYS 100

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Lecture notes taken in class on the canvases and careers article and the definition and development of of avant-garde.
Discovering the Avant-Garde
LeighAnn Hallberg
Class Notes
avant-garde, Lecture
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FYS 100 at Wake Forest University taught by LeighAnn Hallberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
FYS Canvases and Careers Lecture 9/20/16 Professor O’Neil  How art/modern art found its audience  Where we encounter works of art today: o Advertising o Churches o Public places/ cities o Stores (antiques) o Museums o Libraries o Online/ social media o Books o Homes o Doctor/hospital o Media (movies, TV) o Hotels o Galleries o Restaurants o Universities o Auction houses  Where we would find art in 1720  Big Question: How did stores give way to museums, art galleries and auction houses as the main place for audiences to encounter and purchase works of art?  18 Century Shops- popular way to purchase works of art  Gersaint – license to be a marchand-mercier “sellers of everything, makers of nothing” o Gersaint’s Signboard 1720-1721 o Explained what it was like to purchase art o Social atmosphere o Not a real sense of hierarchy or priority o Art sold in stores with other forms of luxury (jewelry)  Fairs- other way to encounter works of art o Mundane parallel to craft fairs o Foire St. Germain, Paris 1763  Print shops- printing from metal plate o More affordable o Reproducible o Advertises latest works of art  Art didn’t use to have status as second cultural category  Frans Fracken II, Collection of Curiosities 1625 o Rarities – shells, lock, coins, seahorse o Porcelain- sign of status  Team of studio painters/helpers  Auction Houses- invention of 18 century/ places to buy old art o Christie’s 1766 and Sotheby’s 1744 o Living artists did NOT want to have work sold at auction o Not a place to buy modern art  Most common ways to view art in the modern world are through museums and art galleries  The Academy of Fine Art –The Royal Academy o Consolidate and regulate artistic training o Decided to create an exhibition in 1737 o Held every other year o All of art was shown in a big room in the Louvre called the Salon o Salon was free/ another social gathering  Artists had to re-conceptualize why they are making art  Salon was main venue for connecting artists and purchasers o Booklet- Salon Levre – included name of artists and their address o Wasn’t a “gallery” did not leave with a painting o Birth of the salon was birth of art criticism  What did the Salon system mean for an artist’s career? o It was a gamble  Canvases or Careers?  Harrison C. White and Cynthia A. White, Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World (1965) o Salon declined and the art dealer came to prominence because the art dealer focused on an artist’s career rather than a single work of art o “The dealer-critic system” – dealers developed sympathetic and symbiotic relationship with critics o “Dealer as Speculator” – dealer has to decide if it’s a gamble, may not sell paintings o “Dealer as Patron” – someone who is buying and collecting for themselves  Paul Durand-Ruel – manipulated system of critics to understand new artistic style of impressionism o Tried to be the “anti” Salon 1900 o Provides for the White’s  “Exposition Courbet (The Pavilion of Realism)” World’s fair of 1855 o He built his own building across from the street of the fairground o Displayed notable works of art o Avoided Salon, tried to establish himself on his own o Going out on your own was a complete failure  David W. Galenson and Robert Jenson “Careers and Canvases” o Salon dominated the art world because it could guarantee a successful career, it focused on careers not canvases o They drastically overestimated the number of dealers in Paris (104 vs. 15) o Success at the Salon guaranteed an audience for a print after a painting o Dealers trade in canvases; really left to artists to organize their careers through group exhibitions o Dealers cannot “create” a reputation for an artist  Impressionism- artists doing it for themselves o Had all received a measure of rejection from the Salon o Set up own art company (limited liability company) o Anyone could exhibit work if they joined company if they paid dues  Dealers capitalized on smaller more intimate exhibitions    The Avant-Garde   French military term for soldiers in the forefront- they have the most at stake  Taken up by different social groups and artistic groups  Began in approximately 1850 Courbet  All happening in Paris o Lot of turmoil in Paris o Famine and drought in France o In England it’s relatively stable politically o During times of political turmoil is when people are thinking of new things o France- changing of government, war, emperor killed, = artists out there thinking of new things o Paris (the city) became known for making luxury goods, built their reputation  Characteristics: o Important for artists and work to be of/representative of their time o Integrate art and life – part of things that happened every day o Important to be radical- create rupture with the past o Important to be strident and inflexible o Reflective of time in subject matter, content, and materials o Belief in progress – things would get better in a linear way (constant improvement) o Belief in linear time o Critical of the past – the past is stupid, we are breaking with the past o Utopianized view of the future o Attempt to appeal to broad audience o Not particularly self-conscious, truly believed in what they were doing  Two counts of the avant-garde o 1 - primarily concerned with using art to create social change nd o 2 - dedicated to innovation within the discipline, progress in art, new ideas, new means  1870 Franc Oppression War o The Paris Commune 1871 o War with Prussia o Parisians did not want to give up cities, rest of France had surrendered but Paris did not o Bridges around Paris were burned o Food very scarce o Horrific time, basically civil war o Aristocracy of Paris went to Versailles o Poor and working artisans stayed and set up barricades determined to fight off Prussians and French who had already surrendered o Representative government set up in Paris o Equality for women o Held off Prussians until May, then they were slaughtered o Representative of label ‘avant-garde’   Slides In-Class  Henry IV started to revive Paris 1660  People began “mixing” o Rich and poor o Market vendors/socializing o Pont Neuf Bridge- mixing classes/ found out news  Louis the 14 continued with open spaces o Primarily aristocracy mingling within themselves  Parks began to develop  Literacy became more widespread o Development of newspapers/kiosks with posters o Outside advertising o Outside lighting o Postal delivery system created  Graveyards in Paris o Carefully dug people up and made Crips that preserved bones  Newspapers or posters of political commentary/propaganda  Commune used cannons to try and protect city


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