CMST 233- Chapter 4 Notes
CMST 233- Chapter 4 Notes Cmst 233
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ary Spilkin on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Cmst 233 at California State University Chico taught by Michelle Givertz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
CMST 233- Chapter 4 Interpersonal Perception *Perception: the process of making meaning from the things we experience in the environment *Interpersonal Perception: the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them Three Stages of the Perception Process 1. Selection: the process of attending to a stimulus Being unusual or unexpected makes a stimulus stand out, repetition makes it stand out and the intensity of a stimulus affects how much you take notice of it 2. Organization: the process of categorizing information that has been selected for attention Helps you make sense of the information, your mind applies a perceptual schema or a mental framework -Physical Constructs: emphasize people’s appearance, causing us to notice objective characteristics like height, age, body shape and subjective ones such as attractiveness -Role Constructs: emphasize people’s social or professional position -Interaction Constructs: emphasizes people’s behavior -Psychological Constructs: emphasize people’s thoughts and feelings 3. Interpretation: the process of assigning meaning to information that has been selected for attention and organized For example thinking someone is interested in you if they are being friendly Physiological states are conditions that are temporary Physiological traits are conditions that affect us on an ongoing basis- how you react to food or how you perceive various behaviors Social roles are a set of behaviors expected of someone in a particular social situation Fundamental Forces in Interpersonal Comm. *Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individual members of those groups *Primacy Effect: the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming a perception Critical because they set the tone for all future interactions *Recency Effect: the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions when forming a perception Ex.) Even though you liked someone before, their more recent comments strike you as unlikeable *Perceptual set: a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive “I’ll see it when I believe it” Can shape the way we interpret social situations *Egocentric: unable to take another person’s perspective Can influence our perceptions of others or assume that other people experience the world the same way we do The opposite of egocentric is altercentric- focused on the perspective of another person instead of your own *Positively Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s positive attributes when forming a perception When we pay attention to positive information, like only seeing your partner’s positive qualities while ignoring their faults or shortcomings *Negativity Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s negative attributes when forming a perception Weighing negative information more heavily than the positive Explaining what we perceive *Attribution: an explanation for an observed behavior 3 Dimensions: 1. Locus: the cause of a behavior is located, whether within ourselves or outside ourselves Some of our behaviors have external causes meaning they’re caused by something outside ourselves Ex.) Why is your boss late? Maybe he’s in traffic, he has a long walk to work etc. 2. Stability: whether the cause of a behavior is stable or unstable, stable cause is one that is permanent or not easily changed Ex.) Why is your boss late for lunch? Rush hour traffic would be a stable cause because it’s permanent 3. Controllability: vary in how controllable they are Ex.) If your brother is late to pick you up, could he have controlled this or not? *Self-serving bias: the tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal causes and one’s failure to external causes Ex.) If you got an A, it’s because you are smart, but if you got an F you blame it on the test being unfair Why did your partner remember your birthday? Was it because your partner is a thoughtful person or because you reminded him/her repeatedly? *Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to attribute others’ behaviors to internal rather than external causes Ex.) That driver cut you off because he/she is a jerk, not because of noisy children or another distraction that might have motivated that behavior *Overattribution: the tendency to attribute a range of behaviors to a single characteristic of a person Ex.) That’s typical of an only child Improving your perceptual abilities Being Mindful of your perceptions: Know yourself The Influence of gender and culture Consider the context Checking your perceptions: Separate interpretations from facts Generate alternative perceptions Engage in perception-checking behaviors Revise your perceptions as necessary