Week 1 & 2 Notes
Week 1 & 2 Notes SOC 335
Popular in The Family
Popular in Sociology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Bostad on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 335 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Krista Minnotte in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see The Family in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Defining Family o Why do definitions matter? Benefits (Obtainable?) How people view you (Prestige) How you view yourself Researchers (Able to start on the same page o U.S. Census Bureau (stricter def.) 2 or more people Live together Related by birth, marriage, adoption o Broader Definition Relationships by blood, adoption, marriage, or affection Cooperate economically Care for any children Identify tied to group Thinking of themselves as a family o Exclusionist Most restrictive definition Family, married, couple, children, roles, more religious (most used words) More men o Inclusionist More women Emotional attachment vs. legal terms Commitment, people, relationship, love (most used terms) Higher education = more likely to be Inclusionist o Fictive Kin People who are not officially part of the family but are treated like family Have bond with non-relatives Ex: Old lady downstairs is like a grandma Ex: Dave and Vicky are always at family celebrations o Domestic Partners Heterosexual or same-sex couples in long-term committed relationships Don’t have to live together (most do) A Sociological Approach o C. Wright Mills o Sociological Imagination: Ability to see the differences between: Personal Troubles Someone’s own fault, no one but themselves to blame Ex: Alcoholism, Help needed at an individual level Social Issues Recession, loss of jobs, large scale economic issues Fixed at a higher level/scale (fix the economy) Ted x – “The story we tell about poverty isn’t true” To fix the structure you need input from the people o Comparative Perspective: Comparing issues in countries, understand what they are doing differently (ex: infant mortality rates) Highlight the social issues/factors that come into play Can also compare things across time (ex: parenting/little house on the prairie) o An Empirical Approach Systematic collection and analysis of data Observation, surveys (qualitative and quantitative) Theory – A framework to understand a social pattern Macro Level – Divorce rates Micro Level – Personal dynamics, face to face interactions, conflict resolution styles of couples Selected Changes in US Families o Postponing Age of Marriage Women median age: 27 Men average age: 29 o Declining Family Size Average number of kids per family = 1.86 ND = 1.95 o Increasing Single Parent Families White: 19.9 All: 24.9 Black: 52.1 o Increasing Income and Wealth Inequality Shrinking middle class o Increased labor force participation rates among women and mothers o Declining Divorce Rate o Declining Teenage Birthrate More open about teenage pregnancy U.S. rate was 34.3 in 2012 Lowest level they have been since 1940 o Increasing Rates of Cohabitation In both younger and older generations o Elderly Population Growing about 4 times as fast as the population as a whole Some countries are an inverted pyramid, decreased fertility rates Selected Functions of the Family o Regulation of Sexual Behavior Incest Taboo (Culturally Universal) o Reproduction and Socializing Children o Property and Inheritance Variation (ex: gender, contemporary family) o Economic Cooperation Pooling resources, taking care of people’s needs o Social Placement Family provides first initial placement in social stratification system (ex: middle class, upper class) o Protection and Intimacy Physical and Emotional well being Variations in Marriage Patterns o Monogamy (U.S.) Multiple spouses not allowed o Polygamy Multiple spouses allowed Polyandry Women married to multiple men Polygyny Men married to multiple women o Polygynous families More common than Polyandry Typically only most wealthy males More likely in developing countries o Polygyny in the United States May be as many as 100,000 practicing Most common among some fundamentalist Mormons, Muslim, and Evangelical Christians FLDS (10,000) Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Pringle SD Eldorado TX Hildale, Colorado City UT Utah’s “Lost Boys” Ex-communicated, Competition for older men finding wives Underage marriage Huge concern in these situations o Characteristics of Polyandrous families Very rare Usually practiced among relatives Times of extreme economic difficulty Low status for women Families Around the World o Non-Industrialized Nations: Example: India About a billion people, Poor country, Independence in 1950 Campaign to reduce birth rates Birth rates dropped from 45 per 1,000 (1951) to 20 per 1,000 (2013) o Growing sex imbalance Female infanticide Abortions o Favor male children More likely to be vaccinated Females considered economic liabilities o Cultures in Transition: Example: Japan Highly industrialized, yet highly traditional Women work, but also take care of household chores Highly differentiated gender roles Women are in “pink collar” jobs Fathers in Japan Less childcare compared to U.S. Spend more time with sons Low divorce rate compared to U.S. o Toward Equality: Example: Sweden Low rates of marriage High rates of Cohabitation Often called “Anti-family”, BUT Extremely low infant mortality rate Excellent maternity and paternity benefits! o Extended leave Child Allowance – A cash Grant from the government for each child Subsidized child care o Affordable and high quality o U.S. High quality daycare in centers compared to home care Transnational Families o Members of the nuclear family live in 2 different countries o One parent migrates to enhance family’s economic well-being o Growth of mother migrants More opportunities of females o Study of Salvadorian Transnational Families (Abrego) (Journal of Marriage & Family) Mothers faced Structural barriers to sending larger remittances, BUT o Were sending larger remittances Mothers were seen as selfless and morally superior o Fewer legal protections o Less likely to be permanent legal residents Fathers: sending remittances tied to marital status o Study of Mexican Transnational Families: Dreby (Interviewed parents & children) Act in similar ways while living apart Use regular telephone conversations to manage relationships Send gifts Send remittances View maternal grandmother as best substitute for parental care Fathers: fulfillment of provider role Can’t send remittanceLose touch Good father = good provider Mothers: emotional care work Maintain contact even when can’t send $$ Express greater guild and emotional turmoil Emotional connection severedLose touch Pre-adolescent children Resilient, not as stressed/upset Strategies of emotional withholding o Naming: Call other people variants of mom/dad (bothered mothers more than fathers) o Feigning Indifference: Pretend they don’t really want to talk to them, act distant, feel the parent is kind of a stranger (both parents bothered) o Disregard migrant parents’ authority: (parents weren’t bothered) o Refuse to migrate: Would not force to join them, waited for them to be ready Adolescent Children More upset Ambiguous lines of authority: Use to their advantage, who is more likely to let them do something Acting out: Behavioral difficulties, physically, smoking, drinking o Felt like no one cared o Had too many responsibilities Declining school performance: May be living with authority figures who are illiterate, low levels of education o Experiencing depression that interfered Immigrant Families o Major source of Population growth Diversity o Most decisions are familial o Immigration background Diverse immigrant experiences RefugeesMore likely to bring entire family Opportunity for careerMore likely to go alone, others come later Mixed status families 1 in 3 kids have one unauthorized parent here Social ProblemsMedical, criminal issues – less likely to seek help 1850-2010 Huge immigration increase More visible immigrant population now throughout U.S. Increase of Immigrants from Latin American Countries / Decrease from Europe Immigration o Acculturation Adapting to traits of culture (language, customs, etc) o Constant Acculturation Parents and children acculturate at same pace o Dissonant Acculturation Children acculturate more quickly and easily than parents o Selective Acculturation Adapt to new culture, but keep elements of native cultures (e.g., bilingual family) o Assimilation Gradual reduction of ethnic distinctions between immigrants and mainstream society
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