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Psych week 3 notes

by: Maurice Ware

Psych week 3 notes 4134

Marketplace > Rowan University > Psychology > 4134 > Psych week 3 notes
Maurice Ware

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About this Document

notes cover class from 9-16
Essentials of Psychology
D'Angelo-Myles, Michelle D
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maurice Ware on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4134 at Rowan University taught by D'Angelo-Myles, Michelle D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Essentials of Psychology in Psychology at Rowan University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Notes from September 16 Major Subdivisions of the Brain  Frontal Lobe  Central sulcus  Parietal lobe  Temporal lobe  Parietal-occipital lobe  Pre-occipital notch  Occipital lobe The Limbic System contains the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus The Cerebral Cortex contains the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe The Central Nervous System (CNS) contains both the brain and spinal cord The Peripheral Nervous System: Handles the central nervous system’s input and output & contains all portions of the nervous system outside the CNS Neurons: transmit information to, from, and within the central nervous system Glial cells: These cells provide the neurons with nutrients, insulate them, protect the brain from toxic agents, and remove cellular debris when neurons die Structure of a Neuron Dendrites: act as antennas by receiving messages from other nerve cells and transmitting these messages towards the body Cell Body: contains the cell’s nucleus and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction Axon: transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons or to muscle or gland cells Myelin Sheath: A fatty material that may surround the axon of a neuron and prevents signals in adjacent cells from interfering with each other and speeds up the conduction of neural impulses Nodes of Ranvier: These are gaps, or nodes, along the myelin sheath which help to speed up neural communication. Types of Neurons 1. Spinal Cord (motor neuron) 2. Thalamus 3. Cerebellum 4. Cortex Notes from September 16 Neurogenesis: The production of new neurons from immature stem cells Stem cells: Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells Neurons Communicate through action potential (Produces an electric impulse that travels down the axon into the axon terminal and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters) Neurotransmitter: Chemical released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse that alters the activity of a receiving neuron Major Neurotransmitters 1. Serotonin 2. Dopamine 3. Acetylcholine 4. Norepinephrine 5. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) 6. Glutamate Endorphins Glutamate: the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and is released by about 90 percent of the brain’s neurons GABA: the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Hormones: chemical substances that affect the functioning of other organs. Hormones 1. Melatonin: Regulates daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep 2. Oxytocin: Facilitates lactation and, with vasopressin, facilitates bonding at birth 3. Adrenal hormones: Involved in emotions and stress; Cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine 4. Sex hormones: Regulate development and functioning of reproductive organs; Androgens, estrogens, and progesterone Electroencephalogram (EEG): A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Involves delivering an electrical current through a wire coil on a person’s head Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Method for studying body and body tissue Brain Stem Pons: Involved in sleeping, waking, and dreaming Notes from September 16 Medulla: Responsible for certain automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate Reticular activating system: Arouses cortex and screens incoming information Cerebellum: Regulates movement and balance; Involved in remembering simple skills and acquired reflexes The Thalamus: “Relay station” Relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: Involved in drives vital to survival (Hunger, thirst, emotion, sex, and reproduction) Controls the autonomic nervous system Pituitary gland Small endocrine gland which releases hormones and regulates other endocrine glands Amygdala: Responsible for Arousal, Regulation of emotion, and Initial emotional response to sensory information Hippocampus: Responsible for Storage of new information in memory Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Occipital lobes (visual cortex) Parietal lobes (somatosensory cortex) Temporal lobes: Memory, perception, emotion, and auditory cortex Frontal lobes: Emotion, planning, creative thinking, initiating, and motor cortex Plasticity: The brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to experience, by reorganizing or growing new neural connections Socialization: The process by which children learn the rules and behavior expected of them by society Visual abilities Quickly develops beyond initial range of eight inches Can distinguish contrasts, shadows, and edges Piaget: Stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete operational • Formal operational Notes from September 16 Power assertion is when a parent uses punishment and authority to correct misbehavior. Induction is when a parent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior. Gender identity: The fundamental sense of being male or female or something in between Gender typing: Process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture Intersex conditions: People born with ambiguous genitals; When non-human animals are born with both genitals they are referred to as hermaphrodites Biological influences: Biological researchers believe that early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, particularly androgens. Cognitive influences: Cognitive psychologists suggest that toy preferences are based on gender schemas, or the mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about what it means to be male or female. Learning influences: Gender-appropriate play may be reinforced by parents, teachers, and other adults. Erikson’s Eight Stages 1. Trust versus mistrust: Infancy 0-2 yrs Hope 2. Autonomy versus shame & doubt: Toddler 2-4 yrs Will 3. Initiative versus guilt: Preschooler 4-5 yrs Purpose 4. Competence versus inferiority: School-age 5-12 yrs Competence 5. Identity versus role confusion: Adolescence 13-19 yrs Fidelity 6. Intimacy versus isolation: Young adulthood 20-39 yrs Love 7. Generativity versus stagnation: Middle adulthood 40-64 yrs Care 8. Ego integrity versus despair: Late adulthood Wisdom 65+


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