Chapter Eight and Nine Notes
Chapter Eight and Nine Notes MKT 321
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Callie Lusk on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 321 at Western Kentucky University taught by McAmis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
MKT 321 Exam #2 Preparation Chapter Nine Notes Memory Short-term memory o The portion of total memory that is currently in use o Short-lived; in order to keep in our memory, we have to repeat. o We can only hold seven pieces of information in our STM. o Elaborative activities occur They redefine or add new elements to memory and can involve both concepts and imagery. Long-term memory o Devoted to permanent information storage o Everything we have ever been exposed to is kept in our long term memory, we just may not be able to access it all. o There are two types of long-term memory Semantic: Basic knowledge and feelings about a concept. Episodic: Memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated. o Scripts Memory of how an action sequence should occur Role theory: what is our part of the script? Example: Going to a restaurant, where do you go once you get in the restaurant? o Wait for the hostess/go to the hostess stand o Schemas o Retrieval from LTM Explicit Memory o The conscious recollection of an exposure event. o When the implicit memory will not suffice. Implicit Memory o The nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimulus. Learning Under High and Low Involvements High-involvement and Low-Involvement o High Involvement Customer is motivated to process or learn the material “I want to do my research to find the perfect laptop” o Low-involvement Consumer has little to no motivation to process or learn the material Most learning occurs in the low involvement context. Classical Conditioning o The process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand). o Example: Pavlov’s dog Operant Conditioning o Rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior. “We want to make sure this is a rewarding experience. – company” Free sample – Discount – Pay at full price Cognitive Learning o Iconic rote learning Pure information coeval Repetition is key and we will continue to repeat until people repeat this. o Vicarious Learning/Modeling Someone else went through this experience and we learn from them Example: “What Not To Wear, the show” o Analytical Reasoning Most complex point of cognitive learning We are really thinking through things and taking pieces of information and putting them together in a new way. Happens when we get new information that is the opposite of what we think. Learning, Memory, Retrieval o What happens when consumers forget? Conditioned Learning: Desired response or dies out if not reinforced. Cognitive Learning: Information that is available in LTM cannot be retrieved. o Strength of learning o Memory Interference o Response Environment o Memory Interference: When consumers have a difficult time retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way. Common form is due to competitive advertising. Competitive advertisers make it harder for consumers to recall any given advertisement and its contents. Strength of Learning o Importance o Message Involvement o Mood Positive moods strengthen learning. o Reinforcement Two types Positive: My behavior is reinforced because I received something out of the exchange (value, joy, etc.) Negative: My behavior is reinforced because something undesirable happened (having a headache and taking alieve) Punishment: get something, it’s a negative reinforcement (go to a restaurant & have a bad experience) o Repetition How often is it repeated? Repetition helps memory. KEEP REPEATING o Dual Coding Coded to get into your long-term memory in different ways. Example: An advertisement that uses both speaking and spelling out the words for the double whammy. Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand Image o The schematic memory of a brand o Different things you think of when you think of that brand. Product Positioning o A decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment. Perceptual Mapping o Offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product’s position. Product Repositioning o Refers to deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product. This involves: Level of performance The feelings it evokes The situations in which it should be used Who uses the product Brand Equity o The value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product. Brand Leverage o Family Branding, Brand extensions, or Umbrella branding Refers to marketers capitalizing or brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products. MKT 321 Exam #2 Preparation Chapter Eight Notes Perception The Nature of Perception Perceptual defenses o Individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages Both perception and memory are extremely selective Exposure Selective Exposure o Highly selective nature of consumer exposure is a major concern for marketers, since failure to gain exposure results in lost communication and sales opportunities Example: DVR’s in American households. Meant to skip through ads and record things that the consumer may not be able to watch right then and there. Voluntary Exposure o Although consumers often avoid commercials and other marketing stimuli, sometimes they actively seek them out for various reasons including purchase goals, entertainment, and information. Example: Going to company’s websites voluntarily or going down every single aisle at the grocery store because you want to. Attention Stimulus Factors o Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself o Stimulus factors include: Color and Movement Position Where are the major brands? Typically at eye level Contrast and Expectations Consumers pay more attention to their stimuli that contrast with their background. Expectations drive perceptions of contrast. Individual factors o Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from another o Individual factors include: Motivation Ability Situation Factors o Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment. o Situation Factors include Clutter Example: Scottsville Road is cluttered with businesses so more times than not, we miss some businesses that are on that road. Program Involvement Interpretation Three aspects of interpretation o Generally, a relative process rather than absolute, referred to as a perceptual relativity PR: Where is our reference point? o Tends to be subjective and open to a host of psychological biases. Example: IKEA furniture: some people say it is cheap and good quality. Others will disagree and say their furniture is so cheap because it is made cheaply and has poor quality. o It can be a cognitive “thinking” process or an affective “emotional” process. Individual Characteristics o Traits Physiological and psychological traits drive our needs and desires Physiological: consumer differ in their sensitivity to stimuli Psychological: Consumers have natural cognitive, emotional, and behavioral predispositions. o Learning and Knowledge The meanings attached to such natural things as time, space, relationships, and colors are learned and vary widely across cultures. o Expectations Interpretations tend to be consistent with expectations, an effect referred to as the expectation bias. What are my expectations? Did you exceed or fall below my expectations? Stimulus Characteristics o Traits o Organization Proximity Closure Figure-ground o Changes Sensory Discrimination JND Interpretation o Consumer inferences include: Quality Signals Example: When Smirnoff increased their price because a competitor dropped theirs. By increasing the prices, Smirnoff was given the impression that their quality was better. Also, country of origin (I.e. “Made in China”) Interpreting images Missing information and ethical concerns Perception and Marketing Strategy o Retail Strategy Brand Name and Logo development Linguistic consideration Branding strategies Logo design and typographies Media Strategy Advertisements Package design and labeling
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