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Research Methods Notes 2

by: Brittany Banker

Research Methods Notes 2 CRJ 280 01

Marketplace > Lakeland College > Criminal Justice > CRJ 280 01 > Research Methods Notes 2
Brittany Banker

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About this Document

These notes are a mixture of class notes, and Book notes. One thing is this is a combination of a couple of different weeks of notes that we had done. There are a few things on here that might be...
Special topics in Criminal Justice Research Meathods
Dr. Karnin Miofsky
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Banker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 280 01 at Lakeland College taught by Dr. Karnin Miofsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Special topics in Criminal Justice Research Meathods in Criminal Justice at Lakeland College.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Notes 2 There are two types of ways to collect data these are: Quantitative and Qualitative Quantitative is when you use numbers in research.  This would be like showing  how 90% of the population uses cars in the United States. Qualitative is when you use words.  You would use descriptions instead of using  numbers to show how you found your research.    There are some areas where these two would be mixed together.  This would  mean that they would use both numbers and an explanation as to what they found with  their research. Social Research Goals Measurement Validity­ This happens when a measure you take actually  measures what it is said to measure.  This would be like using a ruler and wanting to  measure in inches and it actually measuring in inches.  (Will be down below with  validity). Generalizability­ This is when the results of what you measured holds true  for what the researcher says it does.  This would be in different groups or settings as  well.  (Will come up again with validity) Sample Genralizability­ This is when instead of the whole  population is measured they use just a sample and when the information that was  gathered holds true not only for the sample but for the population as well it has sample  genralizability. Cross­ population Genralizability (External Validity)­ This happens  when your finding not only hold true for who you studied, but also for another group that  wasn’t studied. Casual Validity (Internal Validity)­ This is cause and effect when A  leads to or results in B. Authenticity­ This is when people understand that specific settings  show the perspectives of those in that setting. Why do research? Policy Motivations­ This would be like evaluating different programs in order to  see if they work, and if they don’t figure out different ways that those who run the  program can improve how the program works, or how people come out of that program,  and this also allows them to address the problems of the program. Academic Motivations­ This is a way that you could be motivatied to learn  different things from different people.  Also, this could help you learn about cause and  effect. Personal Motivations­ This would be where you would try to do something that is  personal to you.  This could be researching something that has affected you in your life.  Triangulation­ This is a way of doing research that combines different  methodologies.   Secondary Data­ This would be content analysis, or an analysis on data that has  come from a different source. Experiment­ This is used most often when it comes to research.  There are two  different types of experiments: True­ This has two or more groups, it asses the change in the  dependent variable, and it has random assignment.   Quasi­ This has two or more groups, asses the change in the  dependent variable, but it does not have random assignment.  This could be a problem  when it comes to doing research. Surveys/questioners­ You could do these directly or indirectly.  Directly is by  doing surveys, or using face to face interviews.  Indirectly is when you could use  records to answer questions. Participant and other field observations­ You can do this by observing something  in the environment that it is normally in, and do this when it is supposed to happen not  forcing it to happen as the researcher. Validity­ Statements that are about reality.  Its major focus is the different types of research without needing to know the methodologies, or philosophy.   The nature of social sciences and social behavior make it almost  impossible to get perfect validity.   Three general types: Measurement validity­  This is the same as above Generalizability­ This is the same as above Casual (Internal): Same as above Chapter 2 Notes: The process and problems of Criminological Research. What makes a good research question “Good”? 1. Feasibility­ These are resources that you would be able to obtain  quickly, or the day of.  They have to be available in the time that you  need them. 2. Social Importance­ This is when you would look at something that  would make a difference in society. 3. Scientific Relevance­ This is looking at things that are based on what  other people have learned.  Theory Punishment is meant to  1. Deter crime, lower crime rates 2. Labeling theory A theory is a set of testable propositions about empirical Reality. Set­ A group of ideas that relate to each other Testable­ Capable of measurement or observation Propositions­ Statements about how things relate to each other Empirical Reality­ An observable item, or action Why we use theory? 1. It is used for people to understand or explain things that others themselves  may have questions about. 2. It could be used to make predictions about different things like crime. 3. It can help guide different research that people are doing.  Also research has  to have a theoretical basis. 4. There is also the idea of public policy a. Public policy is when it endangers the good of people then it would be  illegal There is a link between theory and data a. Theory is the ideas, and data is the observations b. Theories help determine what type of data is collected. Micro­ Focuses on the individual This would be like social learning theory Macro­ focuses on the group dynamics This would be like broken windows theory Correlation Positive Correlation­ This is when the data of the independent and dependant  variable are going in the same direction.  So, if both are increasing then its positive, and if both are decreasing. Negative Correlation is when the data is going in opposite direction, so one variable is  increasing and one variable is decreasing. data is the same


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