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by: Corri Chanel Oliver
Corri Chanel Oliver

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About this Document

These notes are over learning and learned behavior.
Introduction to Psychology
Sherry Connell
Class Notes
Psychology, learning




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corri Chanel Oliver on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Sherry Connell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at The University of Tennessee - Martin.

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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


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Date Created: 09/22/16
I. Learning- any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. a. When people learn anything, some part of the brain is physically changed to record what they have learned. b. Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning. c. Examples of learning- writing, speaking, dressing, etc II. Ivan Pavlov- Russians physiologist who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs. a. Classical Conditioning- learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. b. Little Albert Experiment c. Involuntary Behavior d. Lemonade In Class Experiment i. Lemonade------ Salivate ii. Pavlov-------Salivate iii. Pavlov=Lemonade 1. 7 pairings 2. 0.5-1 Second iv. Unconditioned Stimulus- Lemonade v. Unconditioned Response- Salivation vi. Conditioned Stimulus- Pavlov vii. Conditioned Response- Salivation e. Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)- a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response i. Unconditioned means unlearned or naturally occurring f. Unconditioned Response- an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus. g. Conditioned Stimulus(CS)- stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. i. Conditioned means learned ii. Neutral Stimulus (NS) can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus h. Conditioned Response(CR) i. Operant Conditioning- the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences j. Thorndike’s Law of Effect i. If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. ii. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated. iii. Cat Experiment k. B.F. Skinner i. Behaviorist ii. Study only observable, measurable behavior iii. Named “operant conditioning” 1. Operant- Any voluntary behavior iv. Learning depends on what happens after the response: The consequence. l. Reinforcement- any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again. i. Primary- naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need such as hunger, thirst, or touch. ii. Secondary- becomes a reinforcement after being paired with a primary reinforcement such as praise, tokens, and gold stars. iii. Positive- the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus. iv. Negative- the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. 1. Taking an aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced: removal of headache. m. Punishment- any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again. i. Punishment by Application- the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus. ii. Punishment by Removal- the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.


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