Chapter 4 Notes: Student Life in School and at Home
Chapter 4 Notes: Student Life in School and at Home EDU 202-2001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micah Haji-Sheikh on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 202-2001 at College of Southern Nevada taught by Robert Shkorupa in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Secondary Education in Education at College of Southern Nevada.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 4 - Student Life in School and at Home I. Rules, Rituals, and Routines ○ Schools create and form routines, cultures, rituals, and social norms for both students and teachers. A. “Poetry Lesson”: A Teacher’s Perspective B. “Poetry Lesson”: A Student’s Perspective ○ Both students and teachers have different perspectives of what happens in a classroom II. Watching the Clock ❏ How does time unfold in schools? ● Students are often caught in patterns that force them to do nothing ○ There are a lot of other things that go on in a classroom besides the actual lesson ● Student disengagement is a real issue ○ By high school only 4 out of 10 students are engaged in learning. III. The Teacher as Gatekeeper ★ Gatekeeping - Teachers must determine who will talk, when, and for how long, as well as the basic direction of the communication. ○ Most of the time, teachers dominate the conversation. IV. The Other Side of the Tracks ● Many people believe in learning taking place in homogeneous classes ★ Tracking - Students of different abilities (low, middle, high) are assigned to different tracks of courses and programs (vocational, general, college-bound, honors, and AP) ○ People have mixed opinions about whether tracking is beneficial or flawed. ○ The Labeling system begins at an early age ★ Jeannie Oakes - Wrote “Keeping Track” ; race, more than ability determines which students are placed on which tracks. ○ Once set into a track, it is extremely hard to move into a different one. ○ Many people believe in detracking because of the inequality of the system ● Mixed ability or heterogeneous classes have their flaws as well. ○ Bright students get bored, slower students have trouble staying on pace. ■ Putting everyone in the same class doesn’t work any better than homogeneous classes. ● “Meeting the needs of all students is not easy. Schools that serve both poor and affluent students tend to have an enormous range in student achievement levels.” ★ Ability Grouping - An alternative to tracking.Students can be grouped by achievement for part of the day, and then heterogeneously for the rest of the day. ○ Blending learning styles also helps students achieve ■ You need time, careful planning, and adequate training for both students and teachers to succeed V. The Gendered World of Elementary and Middle Schools ● By second grade, most children's gender identity is established. ● “Gender wall” blocks boys and girls from interacting, and is stronger than racial barriers at this age. ★ Sociograms - Graphics that provide insights into the social life of a class A. Haunted by Racist Attitudes ● A teacher can help minimize negative and hurtful interaction, and maximize positive power of peer relation groups. ➔ Important Skills for Navigating Middle School ◆ Recognition for academic success ◆ Having the opportunity to do well ◆ Homework that is meaningful ◆ A best friend at school ◆ Feeling safe at school ● Students constantly struggle with gender identity ● Most middle school students have some preconceived notion about what it means to be male or female ● Identifying as either gender is filled with it’s own set of perils and pressures VI. High School: Lessons in Social Status ● Peer groups are a huge part of high school ● Social pressure, grade pressure, “What college are you going to?”, “What will your career be?”. Too often student succumb to all the pressures high school puts them through. ○ Teachers can help relieve student stress by creating personal, caring relationships at school. VII. Social Challenges Come to School ● All children may be plagued by rejection, divorce, unplanned pregnancy, depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, and bullying. ○ Education can bring purpose, hope and empowerment to students who might be dealing with these issues. A. Family Patterns ● Families are getting older, smaller, and more diverse ● While a majority of families are non-traditional, The current curriculum still features traditional families B. Wage Earners and Parenting ● Women with children are primary or co-primary breadwinners in 2/3rds of families ● “Equal pay” is still a problem, even though it’s been against the law since 1963 ● More and more fathers are also taking on parenting responsibilities. C. Divorce ● More than half of new marriages end in divorce ● Children who have experienced divorce may exhibit problem behaviors. ○ Depression, aggression, a mourning process, and isolation ■ It is important for teachers to let these children express themselves, and know they’re not alone. D. Poverty ● Children are the poorest group in our society. What we do have available for these children does not even come close to what they need. ● Almost half of U.S. children will have been on food stamps at some point in their lives. ● Economic inequality is a bigger risk factor than race. ● Poor children are more likely to drop out of school and become involved in crime, sex, and drugs at an early age. ● Poor children have little access to becoming well-read, having a good role model, and experiencing important cultural activities. ○ A lack of experiences can cause a poor child to fall behind. E. Hidden America: Homeless Families ● “Homeless children and youth includes minors living in shelters with or without family, doubling up with friends or extended family, settling into motels, campgrounds, trailer parks, or living in vehicles.” ○ Basic needs become daily struggles. ○ One in 45 children are homeless, and these children struggle with overwhelming odds. ★ McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act - passed by congress in 1987 provides emergency food services, adult literacy programs, access to schooling, job -training and other assistance. ○ Homeless students can enroll in school without proof of a permanent address, they have a right to participate in all school activities and programs. THis law makes sure homeless kids have what they need, but still many of the country's homeless children still don’t receive the education they need. VIII. Children: At Promise or At Risk? ● Children today make many foolish and life changing decisions because they either feel invincible, or they have nothing left to lose. A. Dropping Out ● 80% of students nationwide graduate from high school ● “Students who start struggling in 1st Grade are likely to repeat a grade at least once, frequently transfer between different schools, and attended poor schools.” ● Students drop out when they feel academically and socially disengaged. ○ Some people believe Dropouts can be prevented through early intervention, literacy programs, one-on-one instruction, mentoring and tutoring, more relevant curriculum activities, service learning, and family involvement. B. Sexuality and Teenage Pregnancy ● More than a third of schools follow “abstinence only” curriculums. Contraception is not taught, and these programs aren’t really effective. ● Other Schools use a “comprehensive” approach, which is found to be more effective than abstinence alone. C. Substance Abuse ● “The united states has the highest rate of teenage drug use of any industrialized nation in the world.” ● The most common substances abused are pot, prescription drugs, and inhalants. ● Media, family instability, and social networking can all lead to substance abuse. ○ Kids who believe themselves to be popular are more likely to smoke, drink, and use drugs. ● Some schools use D.A.R.E. and other national anti-drug campaigns, but these programs have been found to be mostly ineffective. D. Obesity and Eating Disorders ● One out of three children ages 6-19 are overweight or obese ○ Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds are especially at risk ○ Diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, low self esteem, skipping school, and early, unprotected sex, can all be consequences of obesity ● Only six states require recess for elementary students ○ In 30 states, students can earn P.E. credits through online classes. ○ National School Lunch Program was passed in 1946, designed to give hungry kids more calories ■ Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids act passed in 2013 added the power for the government to set up nutrition standards ○ Let's Move campaign to help kids get active ● 14 million americans have an eating disorder ○ 40% of all binge eaters are male ○ Boys as young as 10 have started using steroids E. Youth Suicide ● Suicide is the third most common cause of death in adolescents ○ Closeted kids, bullying victims, academic overachievers, and sexually abused girls are the most at risk for suicide ○ Depression is a common predecessor to suicide F. Bullying ● Bullies seek control over others by taking advantages of imbalances in perceived power. ○ Almost half of all children have been bullied. ○ Both boys and girls engage in bullying. ■ Bullying can be linked to academic difficulties, withdrawal, depression, suicide, and eating disorders ● Kids who have been cyberbullied are twice as likely to attempt suicide ○ Schools are stepping up to help prevent bullying through a number of ways, but bullying is still a rampant issue. ➔ To help prevent bullying, educators need to: ◆ Taclk actually about behavior ◆ Move beyond the individual ◆ Stop labeling students ◆ Accentuate the positive ● To be a great teacher, you need to teach acceptance and kindness at every opportunity.
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