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Sociology 101 Week 4

by: Sam Hipe

Sociology 101 Week 4 SO101

Sam Hipe
GPA 3.13

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About this Document

These notes outline what is in Conley chapter 3, as well as go through some of the discussions we had in class about the media
Introductory Sociology
Pinsky, Dina
Class Notes
sociology, Media, Advertising
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sam Hipe on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SO101 at Arcadia University taught by Pinsky, Dina in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology & Anthropology at Arcadia University.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Sociology 101 Week 4 9/20/16 Conley Chapter 3 Paradox = Does mass media create social norms or merely reflect them? Culture is like two mirrors facing each other: It simultaneously reflects and creates the world we live in Definitions of Culture  Function of culture – the glue society together by providing us with a sense of belonging  Culture = Human – Nature o Culture – set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum of the social categories and  concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors (except instinctual ones), and  practices; everything but the natural environment around us  Culture = (Superior) Man – (Inferior) Man o Ethnocentrism – the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others, and the  tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own  Culture = Man – Machine Material vs. Nonmaterial Culture  Material – everything in our constructed physical environment such as technology, books,  fashion, monuments, food, music, language, and dance; can be traced through migration  Nonmaterial – values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms; can’t really be traced.  Language, Meaning, and Concepts  Ideology – a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect  Studying Culture o Cultural relativism – taking into account the differences across cultures without passing  judgement or assigning value o Cultural scripts – modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural,  but may strongly shape beliefs or concepts held by a society  What gender scripts do you live by? Rules for flirting, dating, and sexual  behavior?  How might these scripts by culturally specific? Whether by generation or other  type of cohort?  Respect for the elderly/generation gap  Forms of greeting  Hand signals  Insults  Boundaries  o Cockfighting and Symbolic Culture  Found in Bali, Indonesia  People bet on roosters and they are revered parts of the culture  Subculture o The distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in a society; a  group united by a set of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the  members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same  culture or society  Cultural Effects: Give and Take o Values – moral beliefs (how we think) o Norms – how values tell us to act (how we act)  Reflection Theory o Socialization – the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society  Learning the culture o Reflection theory – the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and  relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of a society is projected Media  Media – any formats/platforms/vehicles that carry, present or communicate information o Mass media – any form of media that reaches the mass of people  Hegemony: The Mother of All Media Terms o A condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary “consent”  of the masses  Heterosexual, middle class, white people – reinforced stereotypes in media  Advertising o What values do you think advertising encourages? o Think of an ad you have seen recently. How does it reflect cultural values?  Beauty  Sex/sexualization of women’s bodies  Stereotypical family values  mother’s roles vs. father’s roles  Simplicity/making life easier  Happiness and popularity  Capitalism/consumerism  Society now and the future  Having a choice o What cultural values do you think ads do not typically reflect?  Socioeconomic disparity/poverty  LGBT couples  Gender/race equality o What do you think our culture might be like without ads? o We are all influences by advertisements  To not be influenced would be to be outside of culture, which isn’t possible The Media Life Cycle  Texts o People are affected by how they read and interpret media o Women have a large deal of individual agency when reading romance o We experience texts through the lens of our own critical, interpretive, and analytical  processes  Cultural Production o Before something becomes history, it has to happen in the present o Rules contain values  Journalism has an unwritten set of rules  Try to minimize their own biases from their work Media Effects  Can plot in 2D diagrams Short Term Long Term Intended A B Unintended C D Where do Stereotypes Come From?  Racism in the Media o WW2 After Pearl Harbor: how to distinguish the Japanese o Darkening a black guy’s face to make it seem more dangerous, criminal, or evil o Coverage is different based on race  Sexism in the Media o Perpetuate unrealistic ideals of feminine beauty o Violence against women o Some companies are taking a different stance  Dove with the “real” beauty campaign Political Economy of the Media  We have our freedoms to choices  Consumer Culture o Consumerism – the steady acquisition of material possessions, often with the belief  happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved   Media Consolidation o 90% ownership in US are owned by 6 companies  GE, News Corp, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS o Originally, people thought the internet would put the control of mass­media in the  public’s hands and thus democratize it. Has this happened? o Deregulation – decrease laws curtailing regulating industry monopolies   Advertising and Children o Schools will pay for advertising but at the cost of the students’ education just to get  sponsors o Consumerism starts at a young age  Culture Jams: Hey Calvin, How ‘Bout Giving That Girl a Sandwich o Culture jamming – the act of turning media against themselves  Adbusters  Spoof advertisements – like Calvin Klein campaigns for fashion


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