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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Lauren Dennis

Chapter 12 Notes Chemistry 1212

Lauren Dennis

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About this Document

Overview of important topics in Chapter 12 of General Chemistry.
Chemistry 1212
Dr. Doyle
Class Notes
colligative properties, osmotic pressure, Solutions, solubility, molarity, molality
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1212 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Doyle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1212 in Chemistry at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 12: Solutions  Energetically favorable  Compounds in a solution dissociate into the molecular components o Must disrupt the network; to break the bonds = to form new interactions with H2O = Solution o It is unfavorable to disrupt the bonds = higher energy  2 types of favorable forming solutions: o Change in enthalpy increase o Change in entropy decrease  Disorder  More disorder = very favorable  2 substances that form a homogensis mixture: o Solid/liquid: NaCl and H2O o Gas/gas: Air (Nitrogen and Oxygen) o Liquid/ liquid: Vodka and H2O o Gas/ liquid: Soda (CO2 and HO) o Solid/ solid: brass  2 parts to a Solution: o Solute: substances present in lesser amounts o Solvent: a substance in the greatest amount in the solution  Solubility: whether one substance dissolves in another o Miscible o “like dissolves like”  intermolecular forces at work o Example:  Which compounds are soluble in Hexane (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3)?  London forces present o (1): H2O “hydrogen bonds” = NOT o (2) CH3CH2CH3 “London” = SOLUBLE o (3) HCl “dp-dp” = NOT  Equilibrium: point of even; both substances are dissolved with no excess o Saturated: no more solute in a solution o Unsaturated: more solute can go into the solution o Supersaturated: unstable; solution can fall out easily  Things to Know: o Most of the time solubility of solids increase with temperature o Most of the time solubility of gases decrease with temperature o Most of the time solubility of gases increase with pressure  Henry’s Law: o Solubility of a gas is dependent on temperature o S gas= K h gas  K hs a constant that every gas has o Example:  O2 at 25C with a pressure of air at 1atm  Poxygen .21 atm  Kh= 1.3 x 10 M/atm o S = (1.3 x 10 )(.21) o2 -4  = 2.7 x 10 M o Expressing Concentrations:  Molarity = (the mol of the solute)/(liters of the solution) = M  Temperature dependent o Volume changes with temperatures  There can be multiple molarities in a solution  Molality = (mol of solute) / (kg of solvent) = m  (X) Mole Fraction = (mol of solute) / (tot. mol of substances)  Mole % = Mole Fraction x 100%  Mass % = (Mass of solute)/ (total mass of solution) x 100  Density = mass/ volume o Rouault’s Law (Colligative Properties)  Vapor Pressure of a liquid when adding to another substance  Adding a NON-volatile to a volatile o Vapor Pressure will never go up o Will always go down o P solution x P solvent  Adding volatile to volatile o P solution a a X P b b o Boiling and Freezing Point Depressions:  Change in Temperature = m x K f or b  m= molality  K = freezing or boiling point constant o Osmotic Pressure:  Travel through a semipermeable membrane without stress  = MRT o M= molarity o R= .0821 o T= Temperature (kelvin)


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