Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Chapter 3 PSYX 100S - 06
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 06 at University of Montana taught by Jacob Bloch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 3: Central nervous system which includes the brain and spinal column Peripheral nervous system Neurons and neuroglia cells Glia- support neurons b supplying them with nutrients and they remove waste material o 10 per neuron o 50% of the volume of the brain Neurons- cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information o Interneurons-communicate with others o Sensory neurons- receive signals from the outside o Motor neurons- move information to other places o Dendrites- receive information o Axon- long thin fiber that transmits signals o Myelin- insulates some axons and speeds up the signal o Terminal buttons- knobs at the end of axon which secrete neurotransmitters o Synapses- the gap at which neurons inter-connect and transmit information o Neural impulse- electrochemical transmission of information from one neuron to another Resting Potential- stable, negative charge in an inactive neuron (-70 millivolts) Action Potential-brief shift in the neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon Ions- o Flow through sodium and potassium channels o Voltage changes from hyperpolarized to a depolarized state -70mv to +40mv o There is more Na on the outside of a cell and more K on the inside of cells All or None Law o An action potential is fired completely if a certain voltage threshold is met or it doesn’t fire at all Presynaptic neuron- delivers the signal Postsynaptic neuron- receives the signal Synaptic vesicles- contain neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters o Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another o Acetylcholine Attention, arousal, memory, voluntary movement o Monoamines Dopamine Voluntary movement, pleasurable emotions Pleasure/reward system Low=Parkinson’s High=schizophrenia Serotonin Sleep, mood, eating, pain control Low= depression High= OCD Norepinephrine Attention and response actions Fight or flight response Low= ADHD High= anxiety o GABA Inhibitory, balancing excitatory NT’s Contributes to Regulation of anxiety an sleep o Endorphins Create sense of well-being and acts as a natural pain killer o Agonists Chemical that mimics action of NT o Antagonists Chemical that opposes action of NT Central Nervous System o Includes the brain and spinal cord o Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the CNS o Blood brain barrier- protective layer that protects the brain from blood and the matter within the blood Localization o Specific functions have relatively circumscribed locations in the brain Hindbrain o Vital functions o Medulla-breathing, heartbeat o Pons- sleep, arousal o Cerebellum-coordination, equilibrium, balance Midbrain o Sensory functions o Origin of a system of dopamine releasing axons o Voluntary movement o Reward process Reticular formation o Muscle reflexes, breathing, perception of pain o Sleep, wakefulness Brain stem o Heart rate, breathing, etc. o Basic survival functions Forebrain o Emotion and complex thought o Thalamus Sensory “circuit board” o Hypothalamus Basic biological derives the 4 F’s Feeding, fighting, fleeing, and fucking Limbic system o Emotion, memory, motivation o Hippocampus- memory o Amygdala- fear, emotion Cerebrum o Complex mental activities o Largest and most complex piece of the forebrain o Two hemispheres Corpus collosum holds the two hemispheres together and allows for communication between them 4 lobes in each hemispheres Frontal- muscle movement, memory, executive functions Parietal- touch and spatial awareness Temporal- auditory processing Occipital- visual processing Lateralization o 2 halves of hemispheres have different functions Broca’s Area o Production of speech o Broca’s Aphasia Wernicke’s Area o Comprehension of language o Wernicke’s aphasia Split-brain Research o Left=verbal o Right= nonverbal Plasticity of the Brain o Reorganize neural pathways after damage Peripheral nervous system o Nerves outside of the brain and the spinal cord Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers/axons Somatic nervous system o Voluntary muscles and sensory receptors o Afferent Inward of CNS o Efferent Away from the CNS Autonomic nervous system o Automatic, involuntary functions o Parasympathetic, sympathetic systems Endocrine system o Secretes chemicals known as hormones in the blood stream Homeostasis Research methods o EEG Monitors electrical activity after time by electrodes on the scalp o ESB Sends weak electric current to stimulate a brain structure o TMS Enhances and depresses activity in a specific brain area o CT and MRI Visualize brain structure o PET and fMRI Structure and function of the brain Hereditary influence o Twin research-nature on behavior o Adoption studies- nature vs. nurture Heredity and Behavior o Chromosomes- biological parents/thousands of genes o Genotype-genetic makeup o Phenotype-how genotype is manifested
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