AMH2097 lecture week 9-20
AMH2097 lecture week 9-20 AMH
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Ralph on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH at Florida State University taught by Pamella Robbins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
September 20, 2016 SLAVERY AND SLAVE TRADE CONTINUED Did Europeans bring Slavery to West Africa? West Africa had slaves in there civilization for centuries o Based on class not race Not caste could move out of slavery and work way up in the world Slaves were seen as people—served a specific amount of time, “worked” at the house (typically lived wherever they wanted, not with slave owner), treated fairly and justly Who are the slaves in West Africa? o Prisoners of War o Convicts No jails- think they are a waste of time, money and no prisoner learns anything sitting in jail Instead, they are enslaved to the person they have committed a crime against If you can pay off the crime then you wouldn’t be enslaved Murder life time enslavement o Cannot get out of this o Branded on face o Enslaved to the family o Someone who owes money to someone Money is equated to time to serve as a slave If someone has no need for the slave, they join the Trans-Saharan slave trade Once time is served, you are released Did Africans help the Europeans Enslave? Myth of pan-Africanism o Idea that all Africans love each other o The Africans aren’t all going to bound together and fight the Europeans—they had their own civilizations and their own set of rules and their own standards They will not come together as “Africans” they fight for their community/group Trading West Africans o Africans involved in the trans-Saharan trade and are trading African slaves Follow the codes and laws around slave trade o Find “good customers” in Europeans who are paying 2x-3x more than other Africans Paying so much more because they are paying for a life time (though Africans don’t always know this) because they are “worth so much more” the traders in west Africa started kidnapping more, treating slaves more poorly Traders begin to see how poorly slaves are being traded and start to catch on to what the Europeans are doing so they stop selling slaves o Europeans begin kidnapping Not nearly enough Europeans to kidnap any Africans Kingdoms of African begin pitting against each other for land help Europeans kidnap Africans from other kingdoms Kingdoms make deals with Europeans o Africans will kidnap other kingdoms for European protection o Allows Africans to gather more land African guides Paid by Europeans to capture slaves Africans within the trade Many steps o Kidnap o Canoe o Boat o Land Shackles o 25 pounds, across wrists and ankles and necks o often fall off boat and drown middle passage o not a huge problem if a slave dies on trip because they are ensured o death rate ~ 25% “tight packers” ship rulers who pack an extra 25% of slaves knowing that 25% will die not more food or water, actually taken more off to fit more Africans losing more than 25% “loose packer”: less slaves and more supplies less die Africans Arrival to the New World Slave Auction Made slaves look “better” (more money) o Strength- oiled them, o Youth- darkened their hair o Sex In beginning males worth more Towards end females are worth more o Health o Skill Language barrier Demonstrate skills on ship Teach to other slaves Price o Healthy young male, not skilled ~$500 or todays currency $5,000 o Healthy young females, not skilled ~$300 or $3,ooo Skilled double To have hundreds of slaves it was extraordinarily expensive In Caribbean slaves life expectancy is 2 years Seasoning a Slave Making slaves believe they are no longer people o Include punishment, abuse, branding etc. Slaves never actually believe they are not human, but submit to avoid punishment “Seasoner”: person who is trained to create a slave o Teach the language of the plantation “Yes” “master” Never learn “no” o Teach what they are doing on the plantation o Break the will of the African Teach them they are not human, will never be free How? Punishment o Whip, choke, “hot box” o What about the slave who refuses to be seasoned? Who never says yes master? Sell o Once seasoned branded Slaves are sold many times in a life time multiple branding If a slave runs away, these brandings give them away More branded a slave is, the less desirable you are September 22, 2016 Africans and African Americans African / African-American Experience in America / US Difference between African and African-American o African: someone who immigrated from Africa o African American: somebody born her from people of African descent First African in America o 1619- not salves Slavery in United States Introduction 1619-1865 o 254 years Developed over time o From servant Chattel From servitude to animality Chattel: “cattle”, slavery passed from mother to child, treated in like animals o Develops through laws De facto: state of affairs that I true in fact, but that is not officially sanctioned Not an actual written law, just something that is followed More cultural De jure: a state of affairs that is in accordance with law Actually written into law Constitution or politically based Slavery is legalized (de jure) but we also had the idea that all Africans were slaves (de jure) As more and more slaves are imported, and more Africa- Americans are born increase in numbers o More of a problem for whites Becoming out-numbered South Carolina had a slave majority o In the end, outlawed the slave trade to 1) look good and 2) we didn’t need to import any more slaves So many were being born here In Caribbean when slaves only lived 2 years, they needed to continue importing, but in US, slaves lived longer and continued to have children Civil war ~ 4 mil. Enslaved As more come in more de jure laws “Customs” weren’t holding slave codes o Outlined what Africans/African Americans can/cant do and the punishment How many Southerners owned slaves? Only 25% of American population EVER owned a slave o Only 25% of that 25% own more than 5 slaves The idea of these huge plantations with tons of slaves being every white persons life is created by media 1% owned more than 50 o Of those who owned slaves, most owned 1-2 $500 each 75% never owned a slave The common experience for an African, though, was to be on a huge plantation with 50+ slaves o We know the slaves experience, not the white person without slaves’ experience World the Slaves Lived in Work o Cash crops/boom crops Tobacco, cotton, sugar etc. o Field slaves All working together at the same task for farming o Slaves on small farms Whites that don’t own a huge plantation or a ton of slaves that only have 1-2 slaves Family slavery Family of only daughters with a small farm may purchase 2 slaves to work with the master (typically father) work in fields together Wife dies- purchase woman slave to serve role of mother and cook, clean, raise children Called family slavery because they were seen more as family and not as animals. o This slave is living with you, eating with you, taking care of your kids treating them much better This is still not “good slavery” forces assimilation o Interracial “marriages” mixed children slaves o Urban slavery Slaves owned by corporation Are actually paid so they can have a place to live, eat and have clothes, o Can save money and buy freedom Only males o House slaves Miscegenation Mixed children Cook, clean, dress, bathe, butler, nanny On large plantations, every white person had a “Servant” Assimilate more and are often punished more by the house mistress (masters wife) Slave codes o Laws that bound slaves to their life and jobs Conditions o Slavery is a business in which money is the only motivator o “Peculiar institution”: we are removing someone’s freedom and stripping them of rights and still expecting them to work for us Slave Resistance Resistance is selfish decision o Something happens to a slave and they want to revolt o Active vs. Passive o Active: murdering the master, burning the plantation rebellion, running away Actively resisting, everyone sees it the punishment is to you and you only and is often death In case of rebellion, the entre state will make slave codes stricter Not a lot of active resistance in US because they see the bigger picture that what they may do could impact the whole country o Passive: making it harder for the master to make money “Putting one over on the master”: suddenly forget how to do their job, so their master has to show them, act sick, act stupid, Animality works for slaves because they can use the animals slow learning and inability to understand “Slowing down”: a group of slaves start singing a song (swing low sweet chariot) and communicate to each other to all work slower If just one s working slow they will be punished, if they all work slow it isn’t noticed Why slow down? o Don’t want to work o Less cotton is picked less money for master Creation of culture Food, music, family life, religion mixed of whites life and western African culture o Biggest passive resistance because all whit people wanted assimilation more than anything Not all Africans were enslaved Free African / African Americans Free blacks Numbers o Never more than 2% of population of 9% of black population 1790 = 60,000 1830 = 300,00 1860 = 500,000 Mostly in northern states Where did they come from? o Indentured servitudes First “Slaves” were really slaves because we couldn’t afford that sold as indentured servants and turned into slaves through treatment o Manumission/ emancipation Freeing a salve Manumission: done by owner himself Becomes illegal very quickly Emancipation: state or government frees slaves North after the civil war Gives a date as to when the slaves need to be freed o Allows northern states to sell to southern slaves o Escape