EDUC 202, week 4 notes
Popular in Perspectives: American Urban Schols
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Date Created: 09/22/16
The Contest for Control of Urban Schools Review of Urban Education Minorities Who were the disenfranchised in urban education? Majorities Who were the powerful? Minority Education Describe condition and location of schools, educators, and administration Discrimination How were minorities’ educated effected? Tactics Examples of cases, approaches, or proponents of protesting segregation school systems Advocates for Equal Education Socially conscious benefactors aware of what is going on and have a conscious White philanthropists someone who donates money Women They have been the second class citizens as well, so they are fighting for their rights and specifically women of other races that have even fewer rights Minority parents want children to get education Academic intelligentsia people who are looking at what education can do to the nation African American Influences on Urban Ed Booker T. Washington Ideology Had a parent who was a slave, was older than Dubois Liberal Justification for racial oppression: Darwinian Evolution Product of Normal and Agricultural Institute Argued that Blacks were behind in their development when compared to Whites because they needed time and support and leadership by whites to fully evolve to whites’ level Whites should assist/lead Blacks’ education (was for whites being on board of ed. And assisting black schools) Economics was the way to catch up Learning a vocation was the solution to the problem of what schooling Black people should receive Quiet on subject of racism Economic (status) Social Political W.E. B. Dubois Ideologyyounger than Booker t. Washington Raised in MA, first African American to get PHD from Harvard Believed there was institutional racism said there is discrimination at institutions such as banks, hospitals, and education Thought first thing need to change was political standpoint to change policies, which would increase social status, and better opportunities for economic growth Political Social Economic Product of traditional liberal arts education & Harvard University Associated (editor of Crisis) with National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Attended to the institutionalization of racism and racist oppression Called for: o Organized public protest o Legal action vs. institutions o Higher education for Blacks (college, not just high school) Wanted to do these things to change institutions’ policies Public Funding for African American Education In the decade of the 1910s, improvements in education for whites flourished, but public funding for AfricanAmerican education still lagged far behind. It was not until the mid1920s that more serious attention focused on AfricanAmerican schooling even though overall conditions continued to be substandard. The goalwiping out ignorance in a racially diverse society was far from being realized through literacy among AfricanAmerican and white populations had risen steadily since 1900. Women’s Roles Urbanization and industrialization increased People left countryside for city Home became less of a place of production Clothes Food Goods for sale Home became more of a place of consumption Women joined workforce and children went to school Manufacturing Increased New Inventions Typewriters Telephones Phonographs Light bulbs Aluminum Vulcanized rubber Wireless radio Electric washing machines Airplanes Required to Produce Natural resources Cheap sources of energy Mass markets Cheap & mobile labor Liberal Industrialists affect Schools Used model of public control to enlist loyalty and reliability of labor Provided or founded Americanization classes Kindergartens Daycare centers in factories Improved working conditions and healthcare for workers Provided fringe benefits Public School managers catered to “major stockholders” or business leaders via Vocational training (bluecollar training/using your hands) Citizenship training Education for Social Stability If schools take one of their primary missions the education of children for a stable society, what becomes of developing children for the intellectual and critical capacities necessary for a free society? 1 Does education for social stability and education for freedom mean the same thing? Education for Employable Skills If schooling is intended primarily to develop employable skills among students, might this not result in most students’ being educated at a level well below their highest intellectual capacities, which include their ability to think critically? 2. Does education for employable skills tend to conflict with education for intellectual development? Education for Group Differences If differences among people (like skin color, or gender, or economic class) are considered so important that different kinds of education should be provided for children of those different groups, couldn’t this mean that the most valuable and valued kinds of education are reserved for those who are already the most privileged? 3. Which is better? Education for group and individual differences, or education for what people have in common? Education for Whose Interests? If people in positions of economic power decide that schools should serve the interests of industry and the economic order, might these fail to serve (like Dubois said) “those most nearly touched” by schooling the students themselves? 4. Will serving the interests of the economically and politically powerful also serve the interests of the majority of young people? The Administrative Progressives & African Americans 2 Types of Progressives Administrative Progressivestop down Political educational movement Elitist philosophy the people that prescribe to this are highly educated white Anglo Saxon Control urban Ed by o Central board o Expert superintendent Eliot concerns o Organization o External control o Hierarchical bureaucracy Educational Progressives/Democratic Progressivesbottom up Small libertarian movement Social constructivistsbelieve you follow the lead or interest of students and construct knowledge around that Make school conform to the child’s growth Takes longer to plan, teacher must know students Dewey’s schooling: o Cooperativebetween teacher, student, and classroom o Democratic Educators were the Gatekeepers to Opportunity In an age of efficiency, overaged students and school leaves were signs of malfunctions in the schools to be corrected. Rates of Retardation Immigrants had higher rates than “Americans” o Some immigrants were more successful than others o Jews (more successful) vs. Southern Italians (Covello p. 23940) More boys repeated grades than girls More girls completed elementary school than boys Determined Results Scholars (statisticians) determined schools better for girls than boys Assess students early on to provide better education => Tracking IQ test gave scientific validation to gardenvariety social prejudice (racial/class) “Better testing would allow them to perform their sifting scientifically” (p.206) Terman’s IQ Test Used to convince parents Classify students into homogeneous groups Diagnose students’ failures Organize classes by students’ abilities Guide students’ choice of courses o Vocational (more bluecollar) o College bound Equal does not equal equity IQ tests were bias towards people coming from high social status families Equity is responsive to abilities of test takers Where to Fit Black Americans? Northern white educators researched immigrants but Administrative Progressives were silent about black children (also Asian and Hispanic Americans) Concept of democratic education vs. social reality of black students troubling Number of years of education did not o Affect type of work Black men pursued o Skilled workers could not follow trade due to discrimination in unions o White nurses pushed out Black nurses Where to fit students in economy? Adjust the Black Children to the School System The “Negro Problem” was defined as there being: Excess of females Unmarried men Unsanitary housing Crowded housing => moral danger Women worked => disrupt home life Lower IQ= less inhibitions than higher IQ Lack of shoes and clothing Although some educators were concerned, they did not use the school to expose and correct the racism of American society but rather to “adjust” the black child to the white middleclass norms educators accepted unquestioningly. (1BS p. 220) No Jobs for Educated African Americans Literacy increased Enrollment increased Employment opportunities decreased o Immigrant skilled domestic service preferred o No Black school counselors to guide choices Disparity between aspiration and actual career opportunities Should schools prepare Negro students for careers not yet open to them? “Were schoolmen simply to accept the low ceiling as a given and to prepare Negroes to be good janitors and housekeepers? If so how much and what need? Or was it the duty of schoolmen to open up a new career opportunity for black graduates?” (1BS p. 221) Black Teachers Few school people sought to place Negroes in “nonNegro” jobs Efforts to counteract racism in job market: hire black teachers and other employees If city had over 7,000 black inhabitants research found black teachers (1940) Normally black teachers only allowed to teach black pupils in black schools Board Mandated Segregation Separate buildings for Black students with Black teachers o Gave colored child better opportunity to “move at own rate of pace” (assumed slower) with curriculum o Enabled Board of Ed to offer employment to “deserving Black teachers” If Black teachers complained their jobs would be lost and replaced with White teachers If White teachers/parents rejected Black, Board of Ed opted for harmony (i.e. fired black) W.E. Dubois on “separate but equal” Poverty problem not due to innate inferiority Retardation due to southern school systems Dullness from poor food and poor homes Segregation a denial of democracy Separate would result in UNEQUAL o Less wellhoused o Less wellsupported o Less wellequipped o Less wellsupervised Two Tracks & Synonyms Advancement Academic schools College Bound Classical Education Status Quo Vocational Schools Technical Schools Commercial Schools Training Schools There were separate normal schools to train white and black teachers. Educational/Democratic Progressives Pragmatism Meaning and value of ideas could be found ONLY in the practical results of these ideas If an idea works well than it can be considered true Ideas must be tested by experiments (John Dewey) John Dewey 18591952 Dewey’s Educational Progressivism Educational theory that emphasizes that ideas should be tested by experimentation. Learning is rooted in questions developed by learners. Educational Progressivism during the Mid1920s to 1950s Most influential educational view in US Favored human experience as basis for knowledge vs. authority Favored scientific method of teaching and learning Allows for beliefs of individuals Stresses programs of student involvement that help students learn how to think Educational Progressivists believe… Schools should prepare students for change Emphasize learning HOW to think vs. than WHAT to think Flexibility in curriculum important Emphasis on experimentation Encourages divergent thinking Life experiences determines curriculum content, all types of content must be permitted Student vs. Subject Centered Experience centered curricula stress the PROCESS of learning rather than the result Immigrants in Schools Second Wave of Immigrants Who Cares? US Senate Immigration Commission US Debt of Education Businesses and Economies White philanthropists Religious Organizations Where is the “Other”? 1908 tally of 37 cities 58% had fathers who were born abroad o New York: 72% o Chicago: 67% o Boston: 64% o Cleveland: 60% o San Francisco: 58% Forms of Educational Ideology: Americanize by Deletion assimilate students by getting rid of culture by force Name Language o Lose native language o Punished for speaking Clothing Ethnocentricexpectation of school system: one dominant culture that is most important Middle class standards E pluribus Unum Schools should integrate immigrant into American society Post WWI=conformity and patriotism Americanize by Additio : School becomes Familywant to inspire immigrants to give up cultural identity Feed Clean Maintain Health Provide activities Access to study Americanize by Mixing told differences are not good and they start to resent their culture and stop using language and resent culture (embarrassed by cultural identity and stay away from parents who have culture) Salad bowl vs. Melting pot Acculturation vs. Assimilation Don’t change students’ culture Don’t divide parents and child America should be confederation o Disparate o Closeknit o Ethnic communities Forms of Alienation Angloconformity & Middle class standards o Anglicized name o “Correct speech” o Scrubbed face o Well starched collar Prejudice supported as negative reinforcement o Teachers o Other students Family o Position of parents and children reversed o Fear of losing cultural child Leonard Covello: My Hero Italian Immigrant No high school in East Harlem Awarded scholarship o Traveled to HS southern Manhattan o Scholarship to Columbia Taught at high school which serves Italian immigrants Created Community School model Fought for first high school in East Harlem Covello’s Community SchoolAffirmed culture in curriculum Classes in Italian language and heritage Building open at night for parents’ classes Curriculum related to community (urban planning) Meetings held in several languages Library books in multiple languages Classes relevant to students’ lives Strove to not to make school divisive between families and their children Disparities Among Ethnicities Labeled retarded: age at arrival in country greatly influenced retardation o “retarded” pupil = 2 or more years older than normal age for grade o 91.8% of all foreign born pupils who immigrated at age 10+ were retarded. 43.5% for those who arrived >6 years o Ethnic differences: Russian Jews vs. Southern Italians School attendance (truancy) IQ scores Second Generation Outcomes Groups that had highest rate of attendance and retention, such as immigrants from o British Isles o Scandinavia o Germany o East European Jews Had significantly higher occupational status in second generation Social class of parents explains much of variance of children in school performance Why did some prosper academically and others not? Impact of prejudice o Society o Classroom AntiSemitism rising yet Jewish pupils achieving West coast Chinese/Japanese in segregated schools yet did generally well Germans did not give up language or cultural norms and also did well Poverty (low SES) correlates with academic failure Family and Community Values, roles, behaviors may align or class with expectations and demands of urban public education… Comparison Eastern European Jews Urban background Resistance against strengthened educational zeal Religious educated revered Free NYC schools vs. Russian quotas School= luxury Southern Italians Peasants Agricultural vs. industry Education family based and school undermined Roman Catholic practices different than Irish Ancient customs/practices Against government compulsions (Edu/taxes) Family contribute to support School= laziness and disloyal
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