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by: Salma Notetaker


Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biology > BSCI201 > BSCI 201 WEEK 3 CLASS NOTES
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These notes cover the cell organelles sturucture and function. They are a part of the material covered in the exam.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Salma Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
BSCI  201  CLASS  NOTES  FOR  THE  WEEK  9/19/16     Cell  organelles:  structure  and  function:       The  Endoplasmic  Reticulum:  two  types     Rough  Endoplasmic  Reticulum  (RER)                     Smooth  Endoplasmic  Reticulum  (SER)   -­‐Prominent  in  a  cell  that  secretes   -­‐Prominent  in  a  cell  involved  in  drug   proteins  or  cell  active  in  exocytosi  or  a   detoxification  or  in  stereologenic.   cell  involved  in  phagocytosis:  requires   -­‐  Lipids  synthesis  starts  at  the  surface  of   lysosomes.     the  SER.     -­‐Golgi  Apparatus:  a  cytoplasmic  organelle  that  modifies,  packages  and  tags   proteins  synthesized  by  bound-­‐ribosomes.on  the  surface  of  the  RER.  These  proteins   are  moved  from  RER  to  Golgi  via  vesicular  trafficking.   Summary:   Secretory  cells:  cells  that  secrete  proteins=>ribosome  bound=>prominent   RER=>prominent  Golgi.   -­‐Phagocytes:  parfake  in  phagocytosis=>ribosome  bound=>prominent  RER=>   prominent  golgi=>abundant  lysozomes.   -­‐Lysozomes  are  vesicles  that  bud  off  Golgi.  They  are  the  “demolition  crew”.   -­‐Lysozymes  contained  in  lysozomes  digest  non  useful  or  unwanted  tissue   substances  or  cells.   -­‐Peroxisomes:  abundant  in  metabolically  active  cells  where  free  radicals  are   produced  as  a  by  product  of  catabolism.  They  are  then  converted  by  oxidase  into   hydrogen  peroxides  (H2O2),  then  these  are  converted  by  catalase  into  water(H2O).   Vitamin  E  and  C  give  electrons  so  free  radicals  won’t  harm  you.   Cytoskeleton:  3  types:     microtubules   Intermediate   microfilam filaments   ents   Function:   Function:   Function:   -­‐act  as  trucks  for  vesicles  trafikking  and  as  a  basis  for   Resist  tension   -­‐are   centrioles  which  are  required  for  mitosis  (mitose:   placed  on   everywher separation/division  of  DNA).   tissues  such  as   e.   -­‐  act  as  basis  for  2  types  of  cellular  extensions:   the   -­‐Unique  to   desmosomes.   each  cell   cilia   flagella     Structural  differences   -­‐occur  in  large  numbers  on   -­‐the  only  flagellated  cell  is   the  apical  surface  of  the  cell.   sperm.   -­‐are  shorter.   -­‐  are  longer.   Functional  differences   Beat  to  create    unidirectional   Beat  to  propel  the  cell  itself.   current  that  propel   substances  across  the  surface   of  the  cell.     -­‐The  nucleus:   control  center  of  the  cell.  Has  3  parts:   Boundary  nuclear  membrane   nucleolus   Chromartin  in  nucleoplasm     plasma  membrane  vs  nuclear   Assembles  the  rRNA   Composed  of  structural   membrane.   with  proteins  to  form   units(repeated  structures)  called   Plasma   Nuclear   the:   nucleosomes.  Anucleosome  consists   membrane   membrane   1-­‐small  ribosomal   of  8  histone  proteins  with  thread-­‐ -­‐glycocalyx   -­‐glycocalyx   subunit.   like  DNA  wrapped  around  them.   present.   absent.   2-­‐large  ribosomal   There  are  2  forms  of  chromatin:   -­‐membrane   -­‐nuclear  pores   subunit.   proteins  act   allow   Both  subunits  will  be   heterochromatin   euchromatin   as  carrier   substances  to   exported  through   molecules   be  imported  or   the  nuclear  pores   -­‐DNA  is   -­‐DNA  is   into  the  cytoplasm.   wrapped  around   unraveled  by   that  show   exported  based   clusters  of   histone  proteins   specificity   on  size.   At  the  time  of   histone  proteins   so  it  is  active  and   and     translation,  a  small   saturation.   ribosomal  subunit   so  it  is  inactive. is  involved  in:   -­‐  if  the   fuses  with  the  large   1-­‐DNA   number  of   one  to  form  a   replication.   functional  ribosome.   2-­‐protein   proteins  for   synthesis.   a  specific   So  cells  producing   substance   proteins  will  have   increases,   several  nuclei  in   the  rate   their  nucleus   doesn’t   (secretory  proteins).   increase.   Function  of  histone  proteinsin  chromatin:   1-­‐ regulate  DNA  activity.   2-­‐ Packaging  of  delicate  thread-­‐like  DNA  from  twisting  or  breaking.   DNA  vs  RNA   DNA   RNA   -­‐pentose  sugar:  deoxyribose.   -­‐pentose  sugar:  ribose.   -­‐contains  nitrogenous  bases:  A:adenine,   -­‐contains  nitrogenous  bases:  A:adenine,   G:guanine,  C:cytosine,  T:thymine.   G:guanine,  C:cytosine,  U:uracil.   -­‐  double  stranded  and  helical.   -­‐  single  stranded.   -­‐confined  to  nucleus  inside  cell.   -­‐in  nucleus  and  in  cytoplasm.   -­‐1  type  of  DNA.   -­‐3  type  of  RNA:  rRNA,  mRNA,  tRNA.           Transcription  takes  place  in  the  nucleus  whereas  translation  takes  place  in  the   cytoplasm,  cells  grow  or  divide.   DNA  contains  genes.   Gene:  a  DNA  sequence  that  can  be  transcribed  and  translated  to  form  a  particular   protein.   Somatic  cells  not  sex  cells  undergo  cell  growth  and  cell  division=>  9  series  of  events   from  the  time  a  cell  is  produced  until  it  divides.   Cell’s  life  cycle:  2  major  phases:     I)  interphase   G1   S   G2   -­‐the  longest  of  all  phases   -­‐some  structural  proteins   -­‐globular  functional  proteins   -­‐synthesis  of  structural   -­‐synthesis  and  growth  occur.   required  for   proteins  (fibrous  proteins)   -­‐DNA  replication.   initiation/maintenance  of  cell   for  cell  growth.   Semiconservative   division  ex:maturation     replication.   promoting  factors(MPF):   1-­‐unwinding  of  helical  DNA:   cyclin  and  cyclin-­‐dependent   2  polynucleotide  chains.   kinase  (CDK)   2-­‐separation  of  2   polynucleotide  chains:  new   polynucleotide  chain  against   each  DNA  template.   -­‐2  copies  of  DNA  with  each   DNA  consisting  of  an  old   strand  (template)  and  a  new   strand.     II  Cell  division   mitosis   cytokinesis   Prophase   Metaphase   Anaphase   telophase   Division  of  the   -­‐heterochromatin:   Chromoso the  chromosomes   -­‐chromatin  is   cytoplasm  of   the  parental   condensed  to  form   mes   move  away  from   assuming  the   chromosomes   attached   one  another  to   euchromatin  form   cell  into  two   -­‐nucleoli  disappear   to  the   opposite  poles  of   to  enter  into  G1   daughter  cells.   -­‐disintegration  of  new   spindle   the  spindle.   phase  of  the  new   It  occurs   nuclear  membrane.   fiber.     cycle.   concurrently   -­‐sprouting  of  spindle   -­‐nucleoli  reappear.   with  mitosis.     fiber(mitotic  spindle)     -­‐synthesis  of  a       new  nuclear     membrane.   -­‐disintegration  of   Telophase  undoes   the  spindle  fiber.   prophase.        With  DNA  replicated  in  the  S  phase  of  interphase  and  with  the  production  of   proteins  required  for  cell  division  (G0  proteins),  the  cell  enter  the  first  phase  of  cell   division=>mitosis.   2  types  of  growth:   hyperplasia   hypertrophy   Growth  in  the  number  of  cells   Growth  in  the  size  of  cells   -­‐neoplasia:  excessive  proliferation  of  cells  considered  abnormal.   Effective  chempotherapeutic  drugs  based  on  cell  life  cycle:   1-­‐inhibit  S  phase  of  interphase=>DNA  replication  does  not  occur  and  therefore  cell   division  (mitosis)  does  not  occur.   2-­‐Drugs  that  inhibit  the  G0  proteins  such  as  maturation  promoting  factors  (MPF)   which  initiate/maintain  cell  division.   3-­‐  Drugs  that  disrupt  spindle  fiber  hence  anaphase  of  mitosis  is  aborted.  (sister   chromatid  are  not  divided)   Protein  synthesis:  transcription  in  euchromatin  form.   Occurs  in  interphase=>chromatin=>euchromatin=>extended  form  of  DNA  not  coiled   around  histone  proteins.   1-­‐  Transcription:  in  euchromatid  form.                                                    2-­‐Translation:    -­‐DNA  unwinds    -­‐Separates  into  2  polynucteotide  chains     *Template:     -­‐used  in  transcription   Triplet     codon   anticodon   C   G   C   C   G   C   C   G   C   T   A   U   A   U   A   C   G   C                                  Triplet  same  as  anticon  except  that  T  becomes  U   3  base  sequence  in  DNA  polynucleotide  chain:  triplet   3  base  sequence  in  mRNA  polynucleotide  chain:  codon   3  base  sequence  in  tRNA  polynucleotide  chain:  anticodon   attached  to  the  tail  of  tRNA  is  a  specific  amino  acid:  proline   *Coding  strand:  DNA  sequence  that  is  not  transcribed   Immediately  after  transcription=>pre  mRNA  (exons  and  introns)  cannot  fit  through   the  nuclar  pores  so  RNA  processing/editing/splicing  to  remove  introns                         mRNA  contains  only  exons.  Amino  acids  specifying  codons.  mRNA  can  exit  the   nucleosome  through  the  nuclear  pores  into  cytoplasm  where  mRNA  attach  to   functional  ribosomes  (free  or  bound).   Non  essential  amino  acids  are  made  from  essential  amino  acids  from  diet.   Genetic  Code:  refers  to  the  codons  in  mRNA  and  how  they  specify  for  amino  acids   64  codons  to  20  naturally  occurring  amino  acids  hence  each  amino  acid  can  be   coded  for  by  at  least  2  types  of  codons=>exhibits  redundancy  in  the  genetic  code=>it   takes  care  of  minor  mistakes(mutations)  typically  involving  the  third  base  of  codon    


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