PY 355 Notes- Week 4
PY 355 Notes- Week 4 PY 355
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Experimenta Psychology in Psychology (PSYC),Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 4: Approaches to Psychological Measurement Observational Methods o Research involving direct observation Naturalistsic Vs. Contrived: Naturalistic: no intervention o Participant observation: researcher also performs activities of participant Contrived: observed in specific setting (setup for observation) o Most take place in lab Observational Methods Disguised Vs. Nondisguised **problem with undisguised observation= reactivity participants act differently because they know they are being observed **problem with disguised observation= may violate absence of consent, violate privacy Minimizing reactivity Partial concealment: aware of observation but not WHAT is being observed Knowledgeable Informants: people familiar with participants observe and rate Unobtrusive measures: indirect, participants don’t know Behavioral Recording Narrative- full description Checklists- recording of behaviors in list form Measures of Latency Reaction time Task Completion Time Interbehavioral latency (elapsed time between two behaviors) Duration-How long a particular behavior lasts Observational Rating Scales- quality/intensity of a behavior Increasing reliability Clear operational definitions Coding system Psychological & Neuroscience Approaches **Neuroscience= broad, interdisciplinary field that studies biochemical, anatomical ….processes involving the nervous system 5 measures 1. Neural electrical activity (EEG) 2. Neuroimaging (fMRI) 3. ANS (HR, respiration) 4. Blood/ saliva (cortisol) 5. Overt reactions (EMG) Self-Report Approaches Questionaire Interview *Items: questions/statements in self-report measures *Single Item Measure: one analysis *Multi Item: set used together to assess same construct “Writing Good Items” 1. Be specific/precise 2. Write simply 3. Avoid assumptions 4. Conditionals precede key ideas 5. No Double-barreled items 6. Appropriate response format 7. Pretest Questionaires Most common Existing questionnaires: o Research o Books o Databases o Commercial publishers Experience Sampling methods participants report on current thoughts/feelings Diary methods: daily record Computerized experience sampling: small units programmed to ask q’s throughout the day Interviews Schedule: series of questions used in interview o More effective: Atmosphere Friendly attitude/ interest No reactions Logical sequence Ask q’s exactly Don’t lead respondent Biases in self reports Social desirability response: acceptance Acquiescence response style: yes Nay-Saying: disagree Archival Data **data pulled from existing Useful for: Social/psych phenomena of past Soc/beh changes Articles of past Anything studied Content Analysis converting textual info to numerical data 1. Decide what units of text to analyze 2. Define coding 3. Categories/ ratings 4. Code for participants
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