Week 7 CBIO 2200
Week 7 CBIO 2200 CBIO 2200
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Cellular biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
WEEK 6 NOTES (9/20-9/22) Epidermal would healing- scrape- no blood. Repair of the skin: Inflammation, organization/proliferation, and regeneration/fibrosis/maturation Deep wound healing- blood clot forms, dilation of the blood vessels (so white blood cells and fibroblasts can migrate to clean up debris and fight off infection) Maturation- skin is regenerated. More collagen is produced- stronger tissue (scar tissue) no hair follicles or sweat glands Granulation tissue- preliminary tissue Keloid scar- when too much connective tissue is made Why doesn’t epidermal wound healing result in scar formation? No collagen fibers in epidermal tissue- no scar. Skin replaces itself and functions as normal What are the functions of skin? Barrier, regulates temperature, receptor, blood reservoir, vitamin D synthesis, excretion of wastes Bone function • Support • Protection • Movement • RBC production in red marrow • Fat storage in yellow marrow • Mineral homeostasis (calcium) Osteons run parallel to the long part of the bone (perpendicular direction) Osteocytes are found in the lacuna Osteons are individual pieces of spaghetti- contribute to the overall strength of the bone Marrow is found in the medullary cavity Periosteum- fibrous membrane around the bone -ost root: has to do with bone Bone Tissue Characteristics • Bone is connective tissue -Few cells, much matrix • Matrix is collagen fibers • Calcium salts deposited in matrix If you soak a bone in lemon juice, the calcium leaches out and the collagen is left- more flexible If you bake a bone, it becomes brittle- destroys the collagen Collagen (compact) layeràspongy layeràcollagen layer Osteon- functional unit in compact bone. Run in the long access of the long bone Arrangement of collagen fibers within the osteon provides exceptional strength in multiple directions Osteogenic cells differentiate into different cells Osteoclasts- come from immune system cells They break down bone tissue. Ruffled border Osteoblasts- lay down the matrix Osteocytes- trapped in the matrix- mature Osteoclasts- comes from WBC- immune system cells. Destroys bone. More nuclei- more effective The periosteum also plays a role in developing new bone You’re looking at a bone. You see lamellae, but no osteons. Is this sample from the epiphysis or diaphysis? Epiphysis- because osteons are only in the compact bone (diaphysis) Intramembranous ossification- beginning with a sheet of fibrous connective tissue. Left with spongy bone tissue in the center- and compact bone tissue on either side • Dermal ossification • An ossification center appears in a fibrous connective tissue membrane. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane. This creates flat bones. • Osteoblasts differentiate in a layer of fibrous connective tissue (typically flat bones) • Bones formed this way include the flat bones of the skull, mandible, and clavicle • We need to be able to describe this in one or two sentences Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva - related to genetics or trauma. Inappropriate ossification Endochondral ossification- everything inferior to skull except clavicle • Bones formed this way result from a hyaline cartilage “template” becoming ossified. Requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification. Formation begins at the primary ossification center. • Bones inferior to the base of the skull are formed this way Responsible for the growth in length of most long bones The cartilage has to die (and be replaced by a calcified matrix) before it can be replaced with bony tissue Avascular- means no blood vessels There’s an infiltration of a blood vessel into the calcified matrix and brings osteoblasts, which use the matrix to lay down bony tissue (primary ossification center) Some fibroblasts will infiltrate into the area in which things are dying and blood supply is brought to the center. The osteoblasts begin to lay down bone tissue. Color of bony tissue comes from perichondrium. Intramembranous Endochondral Starting tissue Fibrous connective tissue Hyaline cartilage membrane Description Fibroblasts differentiate Cells in the template die; into osteoblasts; matrix is primary ossification laid down; spongy bone is center becomes formed; compact bone is vascularized; secondary formed from the cells in ossification center the periosteum becomes vascularized; cartilage remains in the epiphyseal plate (chondrocytes in the cartilage got bigger and died in the middle of the cartilage) Types of bones formed Flat bones in skull; All bones inferior to skull mandible, clavicle other than clavicle (everything else) Be able to identify the structure of boney tissue and describe the differences between spongy and compact bone Bone growth In length- at the epiphyseal plate (closes after puberty)- very similar to endochondral ossification In width- beneath the periosteum Bone growth in length • Very similar to endochondral ossification • Cartilage grows first, then is replaced by bony tissue “Bone chases cartilage” As the epiphyses is pushed further away, the bone gets longer The epiphyseal plate is not as dense as the bone so it shows up lighter on the x-ray Accessory Navicular Syndrome- disruption or change in the development of the navicular bone “Bone chases cartilage” describe and defend this statement • Cartilage grows first, dies, then is replaced by bony tissue Bone growth in width: similar to intramembranous ossification • Osteoblasts in the periosteum secrete matrix • Matrix builds up into new lamellae Bone remodeling • Bone deposit- building new bone or depositing new bone tissue in existing areas • Bone resorption- breakdown and removal of bone tissue Bone remodeling occurs • In response to hormonal changes • In response to mechanical stress • Bone turnover is constant! (Constant process throughout your life time) Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth • Growth hormone • Thyroid hormone • Calcitriol • Sex hormones -Estrogen -Testosterone • Parathyroid Hormone • Calcitonin Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin • Regulate Ca2+ in the plasma • Opposite effects
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