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History 1010 Prof. Ray Lecture Notes 9/21

by: Marisa Connally

History 1010 Prof. Ray Lecture Notes 9/21 Hist 1010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Hist 1010 > History 1010 Prof Ray Lecture Notes 9 21
Marisa Connally

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture given on September 21, 2016, with important information emphasized.
World History 1
Dr. Ray
Class Notes
religion, commerce, Rome, Persia, China
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisa Connally on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Ray in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Wednesday, September 21, 2016 History 1010 Trade - Erythraean Sea = Indian Ocean - Commerce over sea vs. land: more freedom through sea (less regulated, but more pirates) - Politics: where you’re going, where to avoid, taxes - Goods: what you’re going to sell and buy - Logistics: mercenaries to protect you, transport, sustenance - Sharing of info: Chinese Chronicle product of the state to aid in trade - Don’t need to know Chinese names for different places :-) - Commerce NOT main source of income, TERRITORIAL EXPANSION IS - But now there is exchange happening, more concerned with commerce over land The Limits of Landed Empires - Challenges they faced: • Over-extension: - what limited the effective range of an empire? - what would limit its capacity to expand more? • Continuity - how long can an empire endure? - how have states manages succession? • Diversity - how have states resolved social inequality? - how have they managed cultural diversity? - What legacies did the Axial Age Empires leave after they collapsed? • illustrate three challenges 1 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 • why did some ideologies outlive states? - What era came next? 300 - 1000 CE Post Classical (resuscitate ideas of Axial Age?) - Compare Persian Empire with the Empire of Alex the Great • A’s conquest of Persia in 334 BCE. Brought in Greek philosophies. Persia didn’t really fall, just under new management. But then he dies. So warlords turned on each other and tore the empire apart. Now only Parthia is left. • Ecological factors: - Population extension > Environmental degradation • Structural factors: - Political ambitions of regional leaders (satraps) began to fight each other - Weak promotion of state ideology (Zoroastrianism) - Continuous expansion needed to sustain military (need to conquer new territory) • Political factors: - dumb luck of Alex the Great - military genius of Alex the Great…entered right during a succession dispute - Roman Decline & Collapse • 250 - 500 CE - sprawling size, long vulnerable land frontier - hostile relations with Parthian and Sasanian empires in East exhausts resources - after Julius Caesar, succession decided by politicized armies (who had the most effective army within the empire) < most important contributing factor. Julius broke law and brought his army into Rome and scared everyone. Eventually assassinated bc people hated him for it. Nephew Augustus eventually took over. Civil war within Rome. - Invasion • Huns…etc. Various Germanic tribes. - Rome never enforced monolingualism - But: 2 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 • massive slave society • distinguished between citizens and subjects • between rich and poor • increasing blame placed on Christians - Partially solved problem by making Christianity state religion - From China: Huns - From Eastern Europe and Germany: Visigoths, Anglo-Saxons, … - Germanic migrants… What were they? Some refugees • tried to pay them off to pit tribes against each other to keep them out • admitted 200,000 Visigoth refugees, but didn’t feed them, so they starved to death… Visigoths sack Rome in 410 • Different migrant peoples create different “states” • Emperor Constantine moves capital to Asia Minor in 323 CE bc they can no longer defend Western Rome • Eastern Rome = Byzantium (Constantinople) Roman and Germanic culture blend: • - Roman Law - Christianity - Roman military practices (pro armies, training) • Spread around globe by European empires over the next 1500 years - Charlemagne, Napoleon, Hitler - Caesar = Czar (Russian Emperor) - Caesar = Kaiser (German King) - China • Strengths - Roughly circular (transport easy) 3 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 - assimilate pastoralist warriors (e.g. Xiongnu) - strong internal economy - positive balance of trade - no competition • Weaknesses - uncertain succession of leadership harem politics: pick which wife would birth next emperor • - feuding imperial factions/reliance on eunuchs - independent aristocracy of landholding peasants - warlords divide northern China - Constant raids from Pastoralists in the Steppe lands (Zhou) - Succession crisis (220 CE) can’t agree, fight each other, heavy taxation of peasants to fund civil war. - 21 different legal statuses - Daoists lead rebellion - Regarded merchants as a parasite on society - mistrusted commerce 4


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