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PKG Lecture 6 Notes

by: Samantha Shea

PKG Lecture 6 Notes PKG 101

Samantha Shea

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These notes cover what should be highlighted from the powerpoint slides in class on Thursday, September 22nd.
Principles of Packaging
p. koning
Class Notes
Packaging, Lecture Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Lecture  6:  Metal  Packaging Thursday,  September   22,  10:21  AM ► Development  of  Metal  Cans • 1810:  Durand  (English) § Tin  canister • Top  and  bottom  soldered  can § Lead  contamination □ Health  problems ► Advantages  of  Metals • Relatively  inexpensive • High  temperature  tolerance • High  physical  strength High  durability,  thermal  processing • • Excellent  light,  gas,  and  moisture  barrier  properties • Excellent  stiffness • High  production  and  filling  speeds • Readily  recyclable • Metal  remains  the  material  of  choice  for  12  oz.  beer,  soups,  canned  fruits   and  vegetables. ► Disadvantages  of  Metals • Heavy  (more  so  for  steel  than  for  aluminum) • Difficult  to  form  into  complex  shapes  such  as  bottles  (however,  aluminum   bottles  now  available  as  an  example  of  advancements) • Can't  be  colored • Can't  be  heat  sealed ► Metal  Packaging • Major  meals  used  in  packaging   § Steel  and  aluminum • Major  packaging  applications § Cans  (food) § Beverages  Containers ► Metal  pails • Most  common: § Industrial  applications § Home  goods  (paint) ► Metal  Drums § Beverages  Containers ► Metal  pails • Most  common: § Industrial  applications § Home  goods  (paint) ► Metal  Drums • Most  common: § Industrial  applications § Chemicals  (hazardous  materials) • Steel  drums  are  made  in  two  different  styles:  tight  head  and  open  head ► Metal  Racks  &  Systems • Most  common: § Automotive  packaging  applications § Warehouse  and  distribution ► Metal  Closures • Most  common: § glass  containers ► Metal  Trays • Aluminum  trays: § Food  packaging ► Foil • Nearly  all  of  the  foil  used  for  packaging  is  made  of  aluminum • Primary  advantage  of  aluminum  foil  is  its  superior  barrier  properties  to   moisture  and  oxygen   ► Metalized  Film • A  metalized  layer  can  be  applied  to  plastic  film  or  paper • Very  good  barriers  (less  susceptible  to  damage) • Lower  cost  than  foil ► Aluminum • Most  commonly  used  in  packaging  for:   § Beverage  cans  (  carbonated  drinks) § Food  industry  (trays  and  foils) ► Aluminum  Characteristics • Weighs  1/3  as  much  as  steel,  and  has  1/3  the  strength • More  expensive  per  pound  than  steel • Non-­‐toxic • Easier  to  shape  and  form  into  packages  than  steel • Excellent  barrier  to  moisture,  gases,  and  light • Non-­‐magnetic • More  resistant  than  steel  to  corrosion ► Steel  Packaging • Most  common:   § Steel  can  (food  industry) • Non-­‐magnetic • More  resistant  than  steel  to  corrosion ► Steel  Packaging • Most  common:   § Steel  can  (food  industry) • Steel  beverage  containers  almost  eliminated  in  US  by  aluminum  cans  &   plastic  bottles • Strong  inexpensive  compared  to  other  packaging  materials • Non-­‐toxic An  excellent  barrier  to  moisture,  gases,  and  light • • Magnetic  material § Useful  when  steel  is  to  be  separated  from  aluminum  for  recycling • Easily  rusts-­‐exposure  to  moisture  and  oxygen ► Steel  or  Aluminum? • Steel  is  attracted  to  magnets,  while  aluminum  is  not ► Steel  Materials • Name  "Tin  Can"  is  a  misnomer • Cans  are  primarily  low-­‐carbon  steel  ,  not  tin • Steel  is  coated  with  a  very  thing  layer  of  other  material  (sometimes   tinplate)  to  prevent  corrosion ► Corrosion • Corrosion  needs  to  be  prevented  when  steel  is  used  as  a  packaging   material • Coatings 1. Tin-­‐ Tinplate  (TP) 2. Chromium-­‐Tin-­‐Free  Steel  (TFS) 1. Tin-­‐Plate  Coating  Steel • Today,  steel  is  electronplated  ti-­‐ • This  allows ○ Substantial  reduction  in  the  amount  of  tin  required ○ The  ability  to  put  different  thicknesses  of  tine  on  either  side  of  a  steel   sheet  (different  tinning) ○ The  thicker  layer  will  face  the  product  (the  more  harsh  environment) 2. Tin  Free  Steel  (TFS) • Use  chromium  (chrome  oxide)  for  corrosion  protection  instead  of  tin • Advantage-­‐more  economical  than  tin  plate • Disadvantage-­‐chrome  must  be  removed  prior  to  wlding  the  can  side  seam  (this   is  not  the  case  with  tin) ► Can  Manufacturing ○ Tinplate ○ Tin-­‐free  steel ○ Aluminum ○ Three  piece  cans is  not  the  case  with  tin) ► Can  Manufacturing ○ Tinplate ○ Tin-­‐free  steel ○ Aluminum ○ Three  piece  cans ○ Two  piece  cans ► Three  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Three  piece  can,  three  parts: ○ Top  end  (Canner's/  Filler's  End) ○ Cylindrical  shell  (body) ○ Bottom  End  (maker's  end) ○ Side  seam ► 3-­‐Piece  Cans  Mfg  Process • Flat  sheet  is  formed  into  "Tube" • Side  seal  is  formed • Ends  are  "flanged"  to  receive  can  top  and  bottom • Can  maker  applied  one  end • "double  seaming" • Lids  and  empty  cans  (one  end  applied)  are  shipped  to  canner/filler • Mechanically: ► Three  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Requires  about  .25"  undecorated/printed  bare  strip  along  the  weld  edges   to  ensure  a  good  weld • Welding  is  by  far  the  most  common  method  of  forming  a  can  side  seam • Adhesive  (or  cemented):  dry  products  and  non -­‐food  products • Adhesive  joints  are  not  as  reliable  as  welded  joints -­‐not  heat  processable • Permit  all  around  printing  as  there  is  no  bare  strip ► 3-­‐Pc  Can  End  Seam  Process • Can  Ends  are  "Flanged" • "Double  Seaming"  Process • One  end  is  attached  during  can  making  process ► Two  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Two  piece  can,  two  parts: § Top  end  (canner/filler) § One  body  (  with  an  integral  bottom  end) ► Two  Piece  Can  Mfg  Process 1. Draw  Process  (Shallow  Draw) § Cans  whose  height  is  less  than  their  diameter 2. Draw-­‐Redraw  Process § Cans  having  a  height  equal  to  or  larger  than  the  diameter  require  a   second  draw 3. Draw  and  Iron  Process § Aluminum  cans  for  most  carbonated  beverages § Cans  whose  height  is  less  than  their  diameter 2. Draw-­‐Redraw  Process § Cans  having  a  height  equal  to  or  larger  than  the  diameter  require  a   second  draw 3. Draw  and  Iron  Process § Aluminum  cans  for  most  carbonated  beverages § Blank  is  drawn  to  a  wide  cup § 2nd  draw  reduces  the  diameter  and  the  can  is  deepened § The  cup  is  pushed  through  a  series  of  ironing  rings,  each  with   smaller  diameter  than  the  previous § The  bottom  has  the  same  thickness  as  the  starting  blank,  but  the   walls  are  considerably  thinner § Restricted  to  systems  that  will  not  undergo  thermal  processing • Increasingly,  three-­‐piece  cans  are  being  replaced  by  two -­‐piece  cans • No  side  or  bottom  seam • Produce  less  leakers  than  3  piece  construction However… • § Two-­‐piece  can-­‐making  process  is  more  complicated § More  capital  intensive  than  three  piece  can ► General  Advantages  of  Cans • Relatively  inexpensive • Durable • Thermally  stable • Easy  to  process  on  high  speed  lines • Readily  recyclable • 100%  barrier  to  gas,  moisture  and  light ► Can  Dimensioning  (2  and  3  piece) • Overall  diameter  X  overall  height • Given  in  3  digit  X  3  digit  numbers • The  first  digit  is  the  inches,  the  follow  are  the  number  of  1/16"  increment • 305  X  314  =    3  5/16"  X  3  14/16" ► Can  Manufacturing  -­‐no  all  are  metal! ► Composite  Cans ► Metal  Packaging  in  US • Produces  mostly  cans,  both  steel  and  aluminum,  more  than  100  billion   cans  per  year ► Easy  Open  (EZO)  ends


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