PKG Lecture 6 Notes
PKG Lecture 6 Notes PKG 101
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Popular in Packaging Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Lecture 6: Metal Packaging Thursday, September 22, 10:21 AM ► Development of Metal Cans • 1810: Durand (English) § Tin canister • Top and bottom soldered can § Lead contamination □ Health problems ► Advantages of Metals • Relatively inexpensive • High temperature tolerance • High physical strength High durability, thermal processing • • Excellent light, gas, and moisture barrier properties • Excellent stiffness • High production and filling speeds • Readily recyclable • Metal remains the material of choice for 12 oz. beer, soups, canned fruits and vegetables. ► Disadvantages of Metals • Heavy (more so for steel than for aluminum) • Difficult to form into complex shapes such as bottles (however, aluminum bottles now available as an example of advancements) • Can't be colored • Can't be heat sealed ► Metal Packaging • Major meals used in packaging § Steel and aluminum • Major packaging applications § Cans (food) § Beverages Containers ► Metal pails • Most common: § Industrial applications § Home goods (paint) ► Metal Drums § Beverages Containers ► Metal pails • Most common: § Industrial applications § Home goods (paint) ► Metal Drums • Most common: § Industrial applications § Chemicals (hazardous materials) • Steel drums are made in two different styles: tight head and open head ► Metal Racks & Systems • Most common: § Automotive packaging applications § Warehouse and distribution ► Metal Closures • Most common: § glass containers ► Metal Trays • Aluminum trays: § Food packaging ► Foil • Nearly all of the foil used for packaging is made of aluminum • Primary advantage of aluminum foil is its superior barrier properties to moisture and oxygen ► Metalized Film • A metalized layer can be applied to plastic film or paper • Very good barriers (less susceptible to damage) • Lower cost than foil ► Aluminum • Most commonly used in packaging for: § Beverage cans ( carbonated drinks) § Food industry (trays and foils) ► Aluminum Characteristics • Weighs 1/3 as much as steel, and has 1/3 the strength • More expensive per pound than steel • Non-‐toxic • Easier to shape and form into packages than steel • Excellent barrier to moisture, gases, and light • Non-‐magnetic • More resistant than steel to corrosion ► Steel Packaging • Most common: § Steel can (food industry) • Non-‐magnetic • More resistant than steel to corrosion ► Steel Packaging • Most common: § Steel can (food industry) • Steel beverage containers almost eliminated in US by aluminum cans & plastic bottles • Strong inexpensive compared to other packaging materials • Non-‐toxic An excellent barrier to moisture, gases, and light • • Magnetic material § Useful when steel is to be separated from aluminum for recycling • Easily rusts-‐exposure to moisture and oxygen ► Steel or Aluminum? • Steel is attracted to magnets, while aluminum is not ► Steel Materials • Name "Tin Can" is a misnomer • Cans are primarily low-‐carbon steel , not tin • Steel is coated with a very thing layer of other material (sometimes tinplate) to prevent corrosion ► Corrosion • Corrosion needs to be prevented when steel is used as a packaging material • Coatings 1. Tin-‐ Tinplate (TP) 2. Chromium-‐Tin-‐Free Steel (TFS) 1. Tin-‐Plate Coating Steel • Today, steel is electronplated ti-‐ • This allows ○ Substantial reduction in the amount of tin required ○ The ability to put different thicknesses of tine on either side of a steel sheet (different tinning) ○ The thicker layer will face the product (the more harsh environment) 2. Tin Free Steel (TFS) • Use chromium (chrome oxide) for corrosion protection instead of tin • Advantage-‐more economical than tin plate • Disadvantage-‐chrome must be removed prior to wlding the can side seam (this is not the case with tin) ► Can Manufacturing ○ Tinplate ○ Tin-‐free steel ○ Aluminum ○ Three piece cans is not the case with tin) ► Can Manufacturing ○ Tinplate ○ Tin-‐free steel ○ Aluminum ○ Three piece cans ○ Two piece cans ► Three Piece Can Manufacturing • Three piece can, three parts: ○ Top end (Canner's/ Filler's End) ○ Cylindrical shell (body) ○ Bottom End (maker's end) ○ Side seam ► 3-‐Piece Cans Mfg Process • Flat sheet is formed into "Tube" • Side seal is formed • Ends are "flanged" to receive can top and bottom • Can maker applied one end • "double seaming" • Lids and empty cans (one end applied) are shipped to canner/filler • Mechanically: ► Three Piece Can Manufacturing • Requires about .25" undecorated/printed bare strip along the weld edges to ensure a good weld • Welding is by far the most common method of forming a can side seam • Adhesive (or cemented): dry products and non -‐food products • Adhesive joints are not as reliable as welded joints -‐not heat processable • Permit all around printing as there is no bare strip ► 3-‐Pc Can End Seam Process • Can Ends are "Flanged" • "Double Seaming" Process • One end is attached during can making process ► Two Piece Can Manufacturing • Two piece can, two parts: § Top end (canner/filler) § One body ( with an integral bottom end) ► Two Piece Can Mfg Process 1. Draw Process (Shallow Draw) § Cans whose height is less than their diameter 2. Draw-‐Redraw Process § Cans having a height equal to or larger than the diameter require a second draw 3. Draw and Iron Process § Aluminum cans for most carbonated beverages § Cans whose height is less than their diameter 2. Draw-‐Redraw Process § Cans having a height equal to or larger than the diameter require a second draw 3. Draw and Iron Process § Aluminum cans for most carbonated beverages § Blank is drawn to a wide cup § 2nd draw reduces the diameter and the can is deepened § The cup is pushed through a series of ironing rings, each with smaller diameter than the previous § The bottom has the same thickness as the starting blank, but the walls are considerably thinner § Restricted to systems that will not undergo thermal processing • Increasingly, three-‐piece cans are being replaced by two -‐piece cans • No side or bottom seam • Produce less leakers than 3 piece construction However… • § Two-‐piece can-‐making process is more complicated § More capital intensive than three piece can ► General Advantages of Cans • Relatively inexpensive • Durable • Thermally stable • Easy to process on high speed lines • Readily recyclable • 100% barrier to gas, moisture and light ► Can Dimensioning (2 and 3 piece) • Overall diameter X overall height • Given in 3 digit X 3 digit numbers • The first digit is the inches, the follow are the number of 1/16" increment • 305 X 314 = 3 5/16" X 3 14/16" ► Can Manufacturing -‐no all are metal! ► Composite Cans ► Metal Packaging in US • Produces mostly cans, both steel and aluminum, more than 100 billion cans per year ► Easy Open (EZO) ends
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