Thursday 09/22/16 Lecture Notes
Thursday 09/22/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
PSYC 1301 Septt22,,2016 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Next Exam is Oct 6 • During the test you may either take the exam via laptop or via pencil & scantron Class Notes: • What influences your consciousness? o Do you consider yourself a morning or night person? o Do you do drugs? o Coffee, alcohol, and nicotine are drugs. o Do you sleep? • Biological and Environmental “Clocks” that Regulate Consciousness o Each day, consciousness ebbs and flows in a natural rhythm o There are more than 100 processes that rhythmically peak and dip at consistent times each day o These variations in physiological or behavioral activities are called circadian rhythm § Melatonin is produced by darkness, which helps with sleep § Use your bed only for sleeping • Don’t read on your bed • Don’t do you homework on your bed • This makes your body view your bed as a place of mental activity rather than a place of mental rest § You can take supplemental melatonin which theoretically helps people sleep • Biological Rhythms and Sleep o Circadian Rhythms occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness. Termed our “biological clock,” it can be altered by artificial light. o Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease (morning) melatonin from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at nightfall • The Dawn of Modern Sleep Research o Modern sleep research began with the invention of electroencephalography and the discovery that sleep is marked by distinct physiological processes and stages o EEG (electroencephalogram): graphic record of brain activity produced by an electroencephalograph o Brain remains active during sleep o Pattern of activities differs from waking state – some areas active, others not o Two basic types of sleep § REM (rapid eye movement) – associated with dreaming § NREM (non-rapid eye movement, or quiet sleep) – divided into four stages PSYC 1301 Seppt222,20116 Lecture Notes • The first 90 Minutes of Sleep o Awake and alert – beta brain waves o Awake and drowsy – alpha brain waves o Stage 1 NREM Sleep – mixture of alpha and theta brain waves o Stage 2 NREM Sleep – sleep spindles, K complexes, theta brain waves, and beginning of delta waves o Stage 3 NREM Sleep – mixture of theta and delta brain waves o Stage 4 NREM Sleep – delta brain waves o REM Sleep – fast, active brain waves accompanied by rapid eye movements • Synchronized Sleepers o Couples who regularly sleep in the same bed tend to have synchronized sleep cycles • Changing Sleep Patterns over the Lifespan o Fetal § Circadian rhythms develop before birth § Active (REM) and quiet (NREM) sleep cycles emerge o Newborn § Sleeps about 16 hours a day, through not all at once § Up to 8 hours – or 50% - of the newborn’s sleep time is spent in REM sleep o Infant § Shorter 60-minnute sleep cycles, producing up to 13 sleep cycles per day o Toddler § 75-minute sleep cycles o Age 5 § Typical 90-minure sleep cycles of alternating REM and NREM • Sleep-Deprived Adolescents o Circadian rhythms shift in adolescence. Adolescents tend to fall asleep later and wake up later o Consequences of regular sleep loss include: § Poor school performance § Increased risk of accidents and injuries § Depressed mood • Why do We Sleep o Species Sleep Variation and Evolution § Animals with few natural predators sleep as much as 15 hours a day § Grazing animals, such as cattle and horses, sleep in short bursts – about 4 hours per day § Hibernation patterns coincide with periods during which food is scarce and environmental conditions pose threats o Sleep is Important in: § Clearing brain metabolic waste products § Maintaining immune function PSYC 1301 Seppt222,20016 Lecture Notes § Learning and memory § Regulating mood • Sleep and Memory Formation o NREM slow-wave sleep contributes to forming new episodic memories, which are memories of personally experienced events o REM sleep and MREM stage 2 sleep seem to help consolidate new procedural memories, which involve learning a new skill or task until it can be performed automatically o New memories formed during the day are reactivated during the 90- minute cycles of sleep • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation o Sleep Deprivation Studies § After one night – microsleeps, episodes of sleep lasting only a few seconds, during wakefulness § Disruptions in mood, mental abilities, reaction time, perceptual skills o REM Rebound § After several nights of being selectively deprives of REM sleep, REM sleep increases by as much as 50% o Sleep Restriction § Increased urge to sleep § Diminished concentration, vigilance, reaction time, memory skills, and the ability to gauge risks § Motor skills decrease, producing a greater risk of accidents § Hormones are disrupted, levels of stress hormones, immune system diminished § Metabolic changes occur, linked to obesity and diabetes • Dreams o Dream § An unfolding sequence of perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that is experienced as a series of actual events during sleep o Sleep thinking (sleep mentation) § Occurs during NREM slow-wave sleep § Vague, bland, thought-like ruminations about real-life events • Nightmares o Vivid and frightening or unpleasant anxiety dreams during REM sleep § Most common during the middle and late childhood (ages 5 to 10) § Experienced by 10% of adults on weekly basis § More frequently reported by women than men § Associated with daytime stress, anxiety, and emotional difficulties § Differ from night terrors (sleep terrors) § Body is actually paralyzed • The Significance of Dreams as Fulfilled Wishes o Dreams function as psychological “safety valve” for the release of unconscious and unacceptable urges PSYC 1301 Sept 22,,20166 Lecture Notes o Frustrates sexual and aggressive wishes are expresses symbolically in dreams § Manifest content § Latent content o Notion that dream images contain symbolic messages has been challenged by contemporary neuroscience studies of the dreaming brain o Little to no support for dream interpretation • Hobson and McCarley: Activation-Synthesis Model of Dreaming o Brain activity during sleep produces dream images (activation), which are combined by the brain into a dream story (synthesis) § Activation-Input-Modulation (AIM) model o Dreaming is due to the automatic activation of brainstem circuits at the base of the brain § Circuits are more sophisticated brain areas, including visual, auditory, and motor pathways § Meaning impose don internally generated sensory signals • Theories of Dreaming Domhoff: Neurocognitive Theory of Dreaming o Dreaming is like thinking under conditions of reduced sensory input and the absence of voluntary control: Emphasis is on continuity of waking and dreaming cognition • Sleep Disorders o 7 out of 10 people experience regular sleep disruptions o Disruptions become sleep disorder § Consistent occurrence of abnormal sleep patterns § Feelings of subjective distress § Interfere with daytime functioning o Categories of sleep disorders § Dyssomnias § Parasomnias • Sleep Disorders: Dyssomnias o Dyssomnias are disorders involving disruptions in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep § Insomnia • Complaints about the quality or duration of their sleep • Difficulty going to sleep or staying asleep • Waking before it is time to get up • Traceable to anxiety over stressful life events § Obstructive sleep • Sleeper’s airway becomes narrowed or blocked, causing very shallow breathing or repeated pauses in breathing § Narcolepsy • Overwhelming bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness and brief, uncontrollable episodes of sleep • Cataplexy (related) PSYC 1301 Seept 22,,20166 Lecture Notes o Sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control, lasting from several seconds to several minutes • Sleep Disorders: Parasomnias o Undesired arousal or actions during sleep § Brain partially awake; occurs in NREM stages 3 and 4 of slow- wave sleep in first half of the night • Recall REM produces paralysis § More common in children: decreases with age § May have genetic predisposition § Triggered by wide-ranging stimuli o Sleep Terrors § Increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, no recall of the episode next morning o Sleepsex § Abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during sleep o Sleepwalking and Sleep-Related Eating Disorder § Walking or performing other actions during stage 3 or stage 4 • Implementing Stimulus Control Theory to Overcome Insomnia o Four stages to consistently get a good night’s sleep § Monitor stimulant intake § Establish a quiet bedtime routine § Use your bed for sleeping. Not reading § Create the conditions for restful sleep § Establish a consistent sleep-wake schedule • Other rhythms o Ultradrain rhythms § 90 minute cycles § Daydreams, stomach contractions, some perceptual skills go by this rhythm o Infradian rhythms § 28 day cycle • Hypnosis o Hypnosis is a cooperative social interaction in which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotist’s suggestions with changes in perception, memory, and behavior § 15% of adults are highly susceptible, 10% are difficult or impossible to hypnotize o Effects of hypnosis o Explaining hypnosis o Limits and applications of hypnosis • Effects of Hypnosis o Sensory and perceptual changes § Sensory changes include: temporary blindness, deafness, or a complete loss of sensation in some part of the body o Posthypnotic suggestion PSYC 1301 Septt22,,20116 Lecture Notes § Person will carry out that specific suggestion after hypnosis • i.e. not running stop signs o Posthypnotic amnesia § A subject is unable to recall specific information or events that occurred before or during hypnosis o Hypermnesia § Supposed enhancement of memory for past events through hypnotic suggestion hypnosis does not significantly enhance memory or improve the accuracy of memories § Enhancing memories hypnotically can lead to distortions and inaccuracies § Hypnosis can greatly increase confidence in memories that are actually incorrect § False memories can be created when hypnosis is used to aid recall o Age regression § In age regression it is supposed that hypnosis can allow you to re- experience an earlier stage of your life § Not supported by research