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Notes for Exam 1

by: sun543

Notes for Exam 1 BIO 301

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Summarizes all up to Exam 1
Anatomy & Physiology
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by sun543 on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 301 at Purdue University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
anatomy structure of body parts and relationship to one another physiology  function of body’s structural parts cell smallest living unit of the body growth  ^ in body size ^ size of existing cells ^ # of cells differentiation cell changes becomes more specialized cell (different cell) fibroblasts  collagen & elastic fibers differentiates to adipocytes (fat cells) homeostasis condition of equilibrium in body’s internal environment  due to interaction of many regulatory process  dynamic equilibrium pH 7.35­7.45 body 37 degrees C glucose 70mg/100ml of blood body fluids 55­60% of total body mass intracellular 2/3 of body fluids extracellular 1/3 of body fluids interstitial fluid found in b/w cells b/w the narrow spaces in cells ex: oxygen & CO2 skin is an organ endo & meso (mostly simple squamous) epo (all types) stratum s (only parts of hands, not everywhere else on skin) empty bladder (relaxed cells) smooth muscle cells are not striated  merkel ­> stratum basale 3Na+ , 2K+ thick & thin filaments ­> sarcomere ­> myofibril ­> muscle cell, muscle fiber, myofiber ­>  fascicle ­> skeletal muscle CLGSB (come let’s get sun burnt) medical imaging use to create image of human body x rays (body or lungs) ­> (dense structure/white/bone or black)  low dose x rays mammogram, dexascan MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) body is expose to ^ electromagnetic fields  leading to protons to rearrange (radio waves) leading to color image computer PET (positron emission tomography) fludeoxyglucose (tracer) is injected positron & e­ ­> gamma rays ­> 3D image CT (computer assistant radiography) x ray beam to trace an arc @ multiple angles/section of body ultrasound ^ frequency radio waves produced by handheld device reflect of body tissue carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, ATP contain carbon & hydrogen alcohol ­> glycerol sulfhydryl ­> cysteine disulfide carboxyl ­> acid group ester ­> triglyceride, PL phosphate ­> ATP (2 H bonds) amino ­> amino acids, proteins macromolecules many are.. polymers monomers (starch­glucose) carbohydrates 2­3% of total body mass used to generate energy have 1 water molecule/carbon ex: C6H12O6 ***know monosaccharides, disaccharide, polysaccharides glycogen stored in liver & muscle only liver can release  lipids 18­25% of body mass in lean bodies non­polar & hydrophobic small fatty acids ­> plasma ­> lipoproteins (LDL) fatty acids chains of carbons  have ­COOH acid groups in end more than 1 = bond polysaturated saturated acids = solids unsaturated acids = liquids triglycerides mostly mono­unsaturated fatty acids (olive oil, nuts…) omega 3 FA ­> milk, omega 6 FA, cis FA ^ HDL, low LDL, low bone loss, mental health phospholipids in cell membrane 20 carbon FA arachidonic acid 1. prostaglandins prevents stomach ulcers & effects bloods clots for pain 2. leukotrienes allergy inflammatory response aspirin cox I (stomach lining) cox II (pain, prostacyclin) singulair blocks leukotrienes action proteins 2 million different proteins  12­18% body mass 1. structural (collagen & keratin) 2. regular (hormones, nerotransmitters) 3. contractile (actin & myosins) 4. immunological (antibiotics) 5. transport (HD, O2, CO2) peptides 9 polypeptides 10 or more enzymes  RNA, protein 1. ^ specific 2. efficient, ^ speed a million X 3. subject to controls will need Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe to function ATP + Mg2+ (kinase) organic molecule coenzymes (vitamins) ATP ­> ADP + Pi 73 kcal/mol glucose ­> oxygen C6H12O6 + 6O2 ­> 6CO2 + 6H2O +36ATP fluidity double bonds on fatty acids amount of cholesterol selective 1. permeable to non­polar (O2, CO2, steroids) 2. impermeable to ions & large polar molecules (glucose) 3. water & urea (gaps in plasma membrane) concentration gradient (Na+, glucose, O2 & K+, CO2) electrical chemical passive & active transport move down a concentration/electric gradient pumps Na+/K+ ATP vesicle endocytosis exocytosis diffusion passive process rate of diffusion proportional to steepness of gradient temperature inversely proportional to  mass of substance distance SA osmosis movement of water through semipermeable membrane 1. lipid layer 2. aquaporin I (all cells) osmotic pressure pressure that develops in solution due to osmosis ^ solute concentration = ^ osmotic pressure facilitated diffusion channel or a carrier active transport going against gradient  requires ATP primary & secondary digitalis  slows down the Na+/K+ pump push Na+ outside, making it steeper integumentary system skin, hair, oil & sweat glands, nails & sensory receptors skin largest organ in the body epidermis (avascular) melanin made from myosin absorb UV light  protects DNA  destroys free radicals yellow to red brown to black dermis papillary (thin collagen & fine elastic fibers) 1/5 reticular (thick collagen & elastic gibers) 4/5 dermal papilla  macrophages skin color melanin, hemoglobin, carotene,  same # melanocytes darker melanin & more melanin albinism no production of melanin vitiligo certain regions of body shut down production of melanin tattooing & body piercings infections & allergic reactions  functions of skin 1. thermoregulation (body temperature/negative feedback) sweating, vasoconstriction & vasodilation 2. blood reservoir (5% total blood volume stored) 3. protection keratin (protects from microbes from abrasion, heat) tightly needed (microbes can’t get in) lipid protects against dehydration acidic retards growth of microbes, melanin, langerhans & microphages 4. cutaneous sensation (touch, PR, vibration, tickling, thermal & pain) 5. excretion & absorption 400mL of water daily salts, ammonia & urea lipid soluble (arsenic, lead salts) poison ivy (oleoresin) ­> cortisone ­> hydrocortisone by skin ­> dermis           ­> histamine ­> cortison ­> lipid soluble ­> histamine transdermal drug releases in continuously & controlled rate nicotine, estrogen synthesis of vitamin D infection 7 dehydrocholesterol ­> (uv rays) ­> vitamin D3 ­> calatridal (calcium absorption)  skin cancer basal cell carcinoma basal layer rarely metastasize squamous cell C ­> may/may not metastasize melanoma  very dangerous penetrates basement membrane antibodies ­> cancerous melanocytes burns 1st (epidermis) 2nd (epidermis & dermis) 3rd (epidermis & dermis & sub­squamous) pressure ulcers bed sores caused by deficiency of blood flow leading to tissues to die fixed by massaging very dangerous (cobalt 60) skin color red epidermal cell ­> dermis living 80% compact bone 20 & spongy bone matrix 25% water 25% collagen fibers 50 % crystallized mineral salts (Ca­P) osteocytes 1. supports soft tissue (framework to which muscles bind) periosteum ­ tendon 2. protects various organs (ex: skull p. brain: Ca­P, Mg & F, IGF & TGF) 3. movement 4. mineral & growth factor storage 5. blood cell formation ­ blood marrow flat bone ends of large bones 6. stores fat as yellow marrow adipocytes (TG) bones form from cartilage bones broken down & rebuilt  5% bone remodeling osteoblasts & osteoclasts osteoclasts breakdown bone enzymes, acid osteoblasts C, glycoproteins minerals Ca + P, Mn, Mg, F vitamin D (enhance Ca2+ absorption) vitamin C (synthesis of collagen) fibroblasts, osteoblasts vitamin A ( stimulate activity of osteoblasts) hormones (must have receptors ­ bones) growth (IGF, stimulate osteoblasts & protein synthesis) T3 + T4 (bone growth, stimulate osteoblasts) sex (testosterone/estrogen & promote osteoblast activity) Ca reservoir (nerve & muscle cells, blood clotting, enzymes) 99% Ca2+, 9­11mg/100mL exercise in bone tissue (osteocytes) aging in bone tissue bone absorption ^ in bone deposition (loss of Ca2+) salts, decrease protein synthesis osteoporosis porous bone res > bone dep estrogens keep osteoclasts in check evista binds to estrogen receptor stimulates  ^ bone density fosamax bisphosphonates (destroys osteoclasts) van bone necrosis (a typical hip fracture) osteoarthritis cartilage destroyed


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