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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amara Williams on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Cell Biology Study Guide Sketchbook Requirements a) Draw and label an e.coli cell. b) Draw and label an exocrine gland cell of the pancreas. c) Draw and label a cell found within the palisade mesophyll layer of the leaf. d) Draw and label the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. e) Draw and label the different phases of the cell cycle including mitosis and cytokinesis. 1.1 Introduction to Cells 1. What is cell theory? 2. List and describe 2 examples of exceptions to cell theory. 3. What are some uses of cell therapy? 4. List and describe the main ethical issues with stem cell research. Make sure you discuss the pro and con of each issue. 5. Explain why surface area limits the size of cell. Be sure to include the aspects of metabolism which are reliant on surface area and those aspects of metabolism are reliant on volume. 6. What are emergent properties? 7. How does differentiation occur? 8. How does the expression of DNA differ in a liver cell vs. a brain cell? 9. Name and explain the main functions of life. 10.How can you use a scale bar to determine the real size of a magnified organism? 11.How does the specialization in muscle cell and nerve cells affect their ability to reproduce? 12.What prevents stem cells from other organisms from being successful in humans? 13.How can stem cell therapy be used to treat Stargardt’s disease? 1.2 Ultrastructure of cells 14.How did the improvement of scientific tools (light microscope, electron microscope) increase our knowledge of the cell? 15.List the function of all the organelles found in the e.coli cell (use a table). 16.List the function of all of the organelles found in the exocrine gland cell (use a table). 17.How do prokaryotic cells reproduce? Explain the process. 18.What is the disadvantage to prokaryotic cells having their DNA free in the cytoplasm without a nuclear membrane? 19.Explain how bacteria are able to attach so firmly to teeth that they can only be removed by scraping. 20.Why do muscle cells have a large number of mitochondria? 21.Why do plants cells have chloroplasts and mitochondria? 1.3 Membrane Structure 22.How do the amphipathic properties of phospholipids influence the structure of the lipid bi-layer? (Use the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic) 23.What is the function of cholesterol in animal cell membranes? 24.What is the Davison-Danielli model and the evidence that led to its discovery? 25.How did the falsification of the Davison-Danielli model lead to the Singer- Nicolson model? 26.Why does a diet high in plants and plant products have relatively low cholesterol levels compared with a diet involving high amounts of animal products? 27.What do many of the proteins of the plasma membrane involved with cell to cell communication have attached to them? 1.4 Membrane Transport 28.List and describe the different methods by which you can transport material into and out of the cell. 29.How does the fluidity of the cell membrane assist in endocytosis and exocytosis? 30.How does a sodium potassium pump work? What type of cellular transport is it? 31.Why is a potassium channel used for facilitated diffusion? 32.Why must an organ that is going to be used for transplant be placed in a saline solution? 33.Develop a method to estimate the osmolarity of a tissue using hypotonic and hypertonic solution. 34.How does kidney dialysis mimic the function of the human kidney? 35.Why is the term equilibrium used with passive but not active transport? 36.What type of amino acids will be present where integral proteins attach to cell membranes? 37.Why are exocytosis and endocytosis known as examples of active transport? 1.5 The Origin of Cells 38.Explain endosymbiotic theory. 39.What was wrong with Pasteur’s idea of spontaneous generation of cells? What as the main fault in his experiment? 40.Explain how a nucleus might have come to exist in the eukaryotic cell. 41.How does the example of the Hatena and the alga represent an emergent explanation of life? 42.Using evidence, explain why many scientists feel there has been an unbroken chain of life from the first cells on earth to all cells in organisms alive today. 1.6 Cell Division 43.What is the final result of mitosis? 44.Explain the differences in cytokinesis in plants and animals. 45.Describe how cyclins are involved in cell division. 46.What causes primary and secondary tumors? 47.What is the correlation between smoking and cancer? 48.Describe the sequence of events in: a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Anaphase d. Telophase 49.How might the mitotic index be an indicator for the success of chemotherapy as a cancer treatment? 50.A chemical called colchicine disrupts the formation of microtubules. What effect would this drug have on a cell going through mitosis?
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