Public Relations 3850 Lecture 5 Notes
Public Relations 3850 Lecture 5 Notes ADPR 3850
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Popular in Public Relations
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADPR 3850 at University of Georgia taught by Micheal Caccitore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Public Relations 3850 Lecture 5 Notes Four Essential Steps of Effective PR: o Research Helps us better understand situations o Planning o Communication o Measurement/evaluation Research Defined: o Research: the systematic investigation of a problem involving gathering evidence from samples to make inferences The Systematic Investigation: o Predefined procedures and methods: Survey questionnaire Guidelines for focus groups Codebook for content analysis, etc. o Intersubjectivity: It must be possible for other researchers to replicate our study and come to the same results A research problem: o Should be empirical Ex: should be answered based on observable evidence o 3 key types of problems: 1. Exploratory Ex: focus groups to understand voters reaction to new policies 2. Descriptive Ex: audience research, research of market shares, etc. 3. Casual Ex: examining the influence of one variable on another Exploratory Research: o Pretesting product names: Pretesting brand and product names in different cultures Often, up to 10,000 different variations tested o Focus group and survey testing for: Cognitive associations Different meanings Pronunciation Ex: Ford Probe translates into Ford Trial in German An example of Descriptive Research: Nielsen Web Ratings (based on netview internet panel) An example of Explanatory Research: trying to explain why people drive BMWs (based on research done by Fallon Worldwide) Involving gathering evidence: o Search for social regularities Predictions about specific publics, larger groups of voters or consumers Not predictions about individuals o Always with some chance of error Findings hold within some margin of error, there’s never absolute certainty Important distinction: probabilistic vs. deterministic predictions Based on samples in order to make inferences: o Most (market) research is still based on samples o The goal is to make inferences to: A larger population Other time periods Other locations/societies Sampling: Probability vs. Nonprobability Sampling o Probability Sampling: each element of the population has a non-zero known, and equal chance of being selected into the sample o Non-Probability Sampling: one of the assumptions of probability sampling is violated Ex: TV call-in polls, Internet surveys, etc. o Important: in order to calculate sampling error (ex: a measure of how precise a poll really is) we need to use probability sampling techniques Reasons to Conduct Research: o Data is incredible valuable for looking forward Guesses vs. systematic conclusions when making predictions They also help us look back and evaluate: Professors Campaigns Football decision making, etc. Reasons to Understand Research: o The obsession with data and analysis is everywhere o We see it in politics, sports, TV, etc. A few other distinctions: Academic and Applied Research: o Academic (“Basic”) Research: Funded through universities or foundations Done to answer broader theoretical questions Conducted by academics o Applied (“Industry”) Research: Funded by corporate/political sponsors Done to answer a specific, applied question Conducted by: Academics Research departments of larger firms Market research or consulting companies Primary vs. Secondary Research: o Primary: Information gathered by the researchers through person-to-person interaction Can be gathered through meetings, one-on-one interviews, focus groups, surveys, etc. o Secondary: Information gathered through literature, publications, broadcast media, and other non-human sources Generally easier to gather than primary o Ex: Nielson data, Pew data, etc. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research: o Qualitative methods: “…Descriptions of cultural situations obtained from interviewing, focus groups, participant observation, and collection of oral and textual materials” Qualitative Focus Groups: Given high costs of interviews, researchers increasingly turning to focus groups Consist of 5-10 people who are chosen based on their relevance to the study It is a guided discussion designed to explore a topic of special interest to the client/researcher o Quantitative methods: “…Numerical tabulations and statistical comparisons made possible by systematic surveys/polls, experiments…or Ex questions: 1. How much money do you make? 2. Suppose you were in a bookstore and saw a book, displayed on a counter near the door, which you wanted very much but could not afford. Would you steal it? A Final Distinction: Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Research o Cross-Sectional Research: Research based on a sample drawn at a single point in time o Longitudinal Research: Research based on one or multiple samples, with measurements taken at multiple points in time There are several types of longitudinal research Using Research: o Ways to use research: Achieve credibility with management Define/segments publics Formulate strategy Prevent crises Monitor competition Generate publicity Measure success Test messages The Practical Research Process: o Client Question Budget/Schedule Conceptualization Selecting a Research Strategy/Methodology Operationalization Population/Sampling Questionnaire Construction Field Work/Data Collection and Pretest Data Entry/Processing/Cleaning Data Analysis Report Writing
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