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Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 4

by: Camille Muir

Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 4 NFS 2020

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > NFS 2020 > Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 4
Camille Muir
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover gastrointestinal function/morning sickness during pregnancy, a brief review of PICA, and a detailed list of the main nutrients increased during pregnancy. The second half of the n...
Nutrition in the Life Cycle
Matthew Schmidt
Class Notes
gastrointestinal tract, Pregnancy, pica, VItamins and MInerals, nutrients
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camille Muir on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 2020 at Southern Utah University taught by Matthew Schmidt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Key for all my notes: YELLOW= Important to know GREEN= Important terms RED= Important numbers Week 4 Notes for Tuesday September 20    : Slide 24 Gastrointestinal Function  Gastrointestinal track slows down (GI motility), giving the baby more nutrients, but  results in nausea, heartburn, constipation, morning sickness, vomiting, etc.  o Solutions: Fiber(insoluble) and water, probiotics, prune juice (sugar alcohol is not recognized by the body as glucose so it is not absorbed, but rather attracts water in the colon causing loose stool), exercise speeds up the GI tract, and supposedly  magnesium supplements. o Heartburn Solution: Smaller more frequent meals, because of stomach volume  (large meals press against the esophagus and heartburn occurs). Also, avoid  excess fat (slows down the tract), acidic foods and spicy foods. Don’t lie down  after a meal (gravity slows down the process) Slide 25 Controlling Nausea and Vomiting  Separate liquid and solid food intake (food volume)  Avoid odors and foods that trigger nausea  Start your prenatal supplement earlier (allow body to get used to higher levels of iron and zinc)  Change prenatal/take a different time of day  Select easy foods (crackers, potato chips, popcorn, yogurt, hardboiled eggs)  B6 Vitamin Supplements (?)  Ginger (1 gram a day for 4 days) Slide 27 PICA  Ingestion of non­food items o Clay/dirt o Laundry detergent o Paint chips o Ice o Buttons, paper, hair, etc.  Problem o Intestinal obstruction o Weight gain o Ingestion of toxins and parasites o Reduce nutrient absorption  Causes o Deficiencies of zinc and iron may be correlated, but this is for the most part  untested and unproven.  Preg2 Halfnotes Slide 2 Nutrients that increase during pregnancy  Most nutrients increase during pregnancy, specifically: o Fiber o Omega­3 o Vitamin D o Folate o B12 o Coline o Calcium (Ca) o Potassium (K) o Magnesium (Mg) o Iron (Fe) o Zinc (Zn)  Who needs supplemental prenatals­ Don’t get them from a gas station o Have a poor­quality unchangeable diet o Pregnant with multiple fetuses o Vegan o Iron deficiency anemia o Drugs, alcohol, smoking o Really just EVERY PREGNANT WOMAN needs a good prenatal Slide 8 Protein, Energy  First tri­ 0 increase in calories  Second tri­ around 300 calories increase (Looks like a couple poptarts or a bowl of  cereal)  Third tri­ around 500 calories increase (Looks like a hamburger) Carbohydrates Needed  Need 175+ grams/day to meet fetal needs. This amount will prevent ketosis (body using  fat stores for energy instead of carbs) Key for all my notes: YELLOW= Important GREEN= Important terms RED= Important numbers Week 4 Notes for Thursday September 22  d Slide 10 Energy Needs  Increased calories go to the heart then the breast tissue/muscle/placenta then the fetus Slides 11­12 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  Review Sources of Omega 3 Slide 13­14 Iron  This is a big deficiency because it is hard to absorb.   Maternal iron deficiency associated with increased risk of low birth weight baby.  Good birthweight is an indicator of baby’s health  Toxicity is possible with supplements­ oxidative damage (free radical damage shuts  down your organs in extreme cases), and reduces zinc absorption (children need less).  Zinc and Iron compete for similar transporters and so if you have too much of one, the  other doesn’t get absorbed as well.  Most of the world is deficient.   Two forms of Iron o Heme (ferrous)­ best source of iron, found in meat  o Non­heme­ found in plants  Things that increase/decrease the laying down of iron  Vitamin C increases absorption  Calcium decreases absorption (compete for transporter, don’t take  excess amounts of calcium with iron, especially non­heme).   If you eat heme and non­heme iron at the same time, the non­heme is absorbed better than usual, because the heme is present.   Bioavailability: o Red meat­ 54% absorption o Non­heme sources­ 2.8 percent absorption  Slide 15 Zinc  Best source is shellfish, then red meat, then legumes, whole grain, etc.  Zinc deficiency can impact baby’s health: o Growth retardation o Oxidative stress o Fetal Death Slide 15 Calcium  Increased need for calcium in the last trimester of pregnancy. 1200 mg a day takes care of most people’s calcium needs.   Bones  Calcium lowers high Blood pressure Slide 17 Lead  Lead is bad. Lead problem is coming from China. Manufacturing with heavy metals.   Competes with Calcium. Those who don’t get enough calcium usually have an increase  of lead in the blood.   Know the sources of potential lead Mercury  Minimata Disease (Mercury poisoning)  Slide 18 Sodium  Be careful of restricting sodium too much because you need iodine. (iodized salt is a  good source (highest source is cow milk)) Iodine deficiency could cause a goiter (thyroid  issues) Slide 19 Iodine  Cretinism­ the highest cause of mental retardation  Iodine deficiency could cause learning disability  Salt 15% from iodized table salt Slide 20­21 Vitamin D  Big deficiency  The best source is the sun  Atlanta, Georgia and above, we do not make Vitamin D from the sun October­January  (solar noon (the sun directly above you) is the best time to make Vitamin D from the sun)  Food sources: fatty fish is the best source, mushrooms also have it, fortified milk.   Not many things are fortified because it is the biggest toxicity. Ten­thirty minutes in the  sun is all you need. Sunblock will stop the production of Vitamin D. You can get a  toxicity from supplements and the tanning bed. Vitamin D plays a role in bones. Vitamin  D deficiency is correlated to depression.   Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: o Miscarriage o Preterm birth o Maternal infection o Type 2 diabetes in infant  The lighter the skin pigment, the less Vitamin D you need  The more weight, the more Vitamin D you need  Risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy during pregnancy o Vegan diet o Low intake of dairy o Limited exposure to sunlight o Sunblock o Dark skin (need more) o Obesity (need more)


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