Genetics: Sep. 19-23
Genetics: Sep. 19-23 BIOL 3250
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3250 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Mohamed Salem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Sex-Linked Genes • X-linked genes o Genes located in X chromosome o Females have two o Males have one- hemizygous; typically mean they express the gene more often • Few Y-linked genes Sex-Influences Traits • Hormones control expression of gene in heterozygous individuals Lethal Alleles • Essential genes- genes required for survival vs. nonessential genes • Lethal allele can cause death o Typically have mutations o Usually recessive o Some may work later in life, ex. Huntington’s disease Genetic Interactions • Multiple genes affect outcome of one trait o Ex. pigmentation • Combine with environmental influences • Complementation- when both parents are recessive for a specific abnormality, but the normal trait is expressed • Gene redundancy- one gene compensates for another, which does not change the phenotype • Suppressor mutation- second mutation that overpowers phenotype of first mutation o Ex. hairlessness is a dominant mutation Ch. 5: Non-Mendelian Inheritance • Maternal Effect Genes- nuclear genes where genotype of mother determines phenotype of children o Father and children genotypes have no effect o Due to accumulation of gene information in egg from mother • Epigenetic Inheritance o Epigenome § Tells cells what type of cells they will be § Alters how genes are expressed and in what extent o Dosage compensation- compensation in number of active X chromosomes in male and females § Cells can count X chromosomes § X-inactivation depends on X-inactivation area on the Xist § Xist codes for long RNA that coats the inactive X (few genes are expressed from inactive X chromosome, one is this Xist gene) o Modification changes gene expression but is not inherited • Genomic Imprinting o Expression dependent on whether inheritance of gene was from mother or father • DNA Methylation o Methyl group is added to cytosine or adenine of DNA o Tagged which leads to expression or non-expression of gene Video About Epigenetics • Ex. identical twins- genetically identical; one may have cancer and another may be at risk but won’t express it because of their different epigenomes • Reactivation of genes is a growing process that has allowed for success in the medical field • We can alter our epigenetics and also that of our future generations • Studies show that epigenetic differences can accumulate with age
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