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History 2301 Week 1

by: Taylor Moon

History 2301 Week 1 HIST 2301

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > History > HIST 2301 > History 2301 Week 1
Taylor Moon
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Reconstruction & Industrialization of the North
Jorge Iber
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Moon on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Jorge Iber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see in History at Texas Tech University.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Reconstruction & Industrialization of the North - Reconstruction o Many historians argue this was a turning point in society- the end of the Market Revolution and the transition to an industrial revolution o North began to resemble the more modern society we think of today o Definition of Reconstruction (ID)  Defined as the country’s various attempts to resolve the issues that remained after the Civil War - Some of the issues remaining o Could former slaves really be free? o How could the states that left be let back in the US? o Could the country truly transform? o Could the South ever catch up with the North in Industry? - Major legislation in Reconstruction o Black codes (ID)- southern attempt to keep African Americans oppressed o Civil Rights Act (ID)- designed to counteract the South’s new black codes by allowing all citizens, black or white, protection of the law, the right to sue, give evidence in court, and hold property, etc. o 13 Amendment (ID)- no more slavery o 14 Amendment (ID)- equal protection to all- due process o 15 Amendment (ID)- states cannot prohibit a citizen to be denied the right to vote. - More Legislation o The Civil Act of 1875 (ID)- forbade racial discrimination in all public facilities- segregation was not made illegal o Beginning in about 1876 to World War 11 there was a decline of African American political participation o But something was changing… - Industrial Revolution (ID) o Definition: the transformation in the way goods were made and sold o Products were made more efficiently and more could be produced o Products were now being advertised, stores had mail order, people had so many choices! o One of the reasons these products could be had? Railroads! - Pacific Railway Act (ID) o In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Pacific Railway Act, assuring private railroad companies that the government would subsidize the cost to build a transcontinental railroad. The Civil War delayed construction, but the ambitious project picked back up shortly after the war ended. Railroad construction in the West and South continued for decades after workers completed the transcontinental railroad. - Before the Civil War there were 200 railroads in the United states o This was the first war that the railroads played a key role o Most of the rails were above the Mississippi River- the south had few rails- it was expensive and the South did not have the cash to invest o The South had civilian owned rails, could not get iron because of Northern blockade, could not get parts - Problems with the railroad: o Those who owned the railroads did not care about those who worked for them- it was easier to kill an employee in an accident than buy better parts, invest in new machinery or new, safer technology o Men lost arms, legs, hands, fingers trying to couple cars, tightening hand breaks, and everyday activities that went with the job o Railroad were seen as a monopoly as their schedules and rates affected every person that relied on the railroads o Railroads discriminated against people -rates, where they ran - Connecting East and West o Between 1865 and 1869, the Central Pacific laid 690 miles of track and the Union Pacific 1,087 miles. A golden railroad spike symbolized completion of the transcontinental railroad in Promontory, Utah in 1869 - Scientific Management (ID) o Proposed by Fredrick Taylor o Response to something called “soldiering” (ID)- or the attempt by workers to do the least amount of work in the most amount of time o Taylor sought to give workers high standards to meet- opposite of individual incentives like promotion or pay raise o Machines before man- future of management o Each person had their own job- and was trained for task o Managers oversaw the worker to check for productivity o Tasks could bthoptimized scientifically - Labor in the late 19 century o Many families worked in factories o Many families still lived on farms and farmed o Often times many former slave men were sharecroppers o Many former slave women were hired as domestic- cooked, cleaned, kept house for white women o Some former female slaves began their own laundry services in cities - Labor issues in factories o Many factory workers were women, children, and immigrants o Conditions were difficult  Low pay  Competition for jobs-easily replaced  Illness/sickness could be devastating to a family  Most people worked very long hours and had little time for lunch  Management positions were usually reserved for white men  Hazardous working conditions- usage work conditions - Haymarket Square Incident (ID) o Strikes became very common in the United States o Labor movement included anarchist, communist, and socialist o Many of the radicals were German radicals o Haymarket square protest was beginning by these radicals o Labor radicals met to protest the killing of several workers by the Chicago Police Department the day before at the McCormick Reaper Works o At the end of the rally shots were fired by either police or protestors or both and chaos ensued o An individual threw a bomb at the police and 7 police and 1 civilian were killed - Pullman Strike (ID) o Strike of 1894- walkout by railroad employees of Pullman Company o 1867 Pullman began the company which specialized in luxury train cars o The new cars included comfortable seats, restaurants, and improved sleeping quarters o Leased the cars to railroad companies instead of selling them o Pullman est. a model industrial town on the edge of Chicago o Town had a school church, library hotel, etc o Had garbage pickup and modern sewage system o Marked up prices by 10% in community to make a profit o Leased the houses o Panic of 1893- caused Pullman to fire 1/3 of its workers, cut wages, and reduced hours o Company would not go down on rent- as it was taken directly out of the paycheck o Left no money for food to feed families o People were upset and broke o Many of the upset workers joined the newly established American Railway Union in the hopes of finding relief o President- Eugen Debs o May 1894 the Pullman strike began o Asked those in and out of Chicago to not work on trains that had Pullman cars- somewhat successful but not completely - Women’s Suffrage still an issue o At the Time (1869) there were two major suffrage movements  The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)  Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, th th against the 14 and 15 amendments-injustice to women Founded in 1890 Susan B. Anthony succeeded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton as president in 1982 Stanton wrote The Women’s Bible after that NAWSA would not associate with her-did not want to upset religious leaders  The American Woman Suffrage Association Led by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howard Less militant than the NAWSA-only wanted the vote o Most of the work was done at the local level o Since there was no amendment the rights of women were at the mercy of the state o State controlled the time, manner and place of elections and women’s role or lack of a role in elections o Beginning with Wyoming they saw a great deal of success with women’s suffrage in the west o Social divisions were not as prominent in the West and it was easier - National Association of Colored Women’s Club- est. 1896 (ID) o In the face of lynching and segregation the women of this party wanted to “uplift” the race o Members of this group included:  Harriet Tubman  Ida B. Wells  Margaret Murray Washington- who became the first president of the organization  Motto “lifting as we climb” o Goals  Improve lives of impoverished African Americans  Fundraising took place for these services  Focus on job training, equal wages, and child-care


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