Week 3 Class 2
Popular in Mexico: Olmecs to Independence
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 206 at DePaul University taught by Juan Mora-Torres in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
I. Maya Culture A. Birth, death, rebirth→ cyclical conception of time 1. Theme embedded in the religion 2. Gods provided them with the essentials of life 3. Diff between the mayan priest and aztec priest. Mayan priest did not have to observe celibacy. The children of the priests became priests a) They were ppl of learning → knowledge b) The administration of sacraments c) Healers d) Read and write with characters e) Genealogy was kept track f) Intertwined with the sciences 3114 BCE g) Believe in the infinitive unity of time (∞ and number) h) Study of stars (astronomy); predicted lunar eclipes (1) Had to be kept tracked in order to practices the rituals (2) The monuments and pyramids contained a mythical power 4. Two calendars: sacred (lunar) and ritual (solar a) Lunar 262 days b) solar months, 20 days to the month, 365 days; could be adjusted for leap years, 20 years= long century c) Used for power d) Concept of zero e) Mathematics served as a practical service for the jobs: accountant, merchant religious figures 5. Disappearance of the Maya 900 BCE a) Increase of violence/enemy b) Disease c) Famine d) Social revolution II. Teotihuacan A. Metropolis of mesoamerica (pop. of over 200 thousand ppl) 1. Hydraulic society intensive labor, canal, irrigation a) More yield of crops (maize grew 2 crops a year) (1) Could sustain large urban population 2. Lived near obsidian deposits a) Trade 3. Mexicas were impressed at the marvel of this city and named it teotihuacan B. Religious center 1. Pyramid of the Moon and the Sun a) Reflection of heaven including its components of day and night b) Citadel c) Compared to the Vatican of Meso America d) Only priests allowed inside 2. Religious temple after the god of the snake 3. Main deity was a Goddess a) She appears in murals b) She is always faceless or covered by a mask 4. The tombs of the rules of this city have never been found 5. Their art and monuments do not glorify the rulers a) Power is depicted through the gods and goddesses 6. Ruled by a collective leadership a) Checked and balanced power 7. OPEN city a) Travelers were allowed inside and out the city b) Pilgrimages to the sacred city of mesoamerica c) Multiethnic city C. Economic center 1. Manufacturing center a) Raw materials and goods came into teotihuacan b) The craftsman produced goods to trade in Mesoamerica (1) Jade, cotton, pottery, jewelry (gold and silver) 2. Highly skilled craftsman 3. The free travel of people introduced ppl of all craftsmanship, and brought multiethnic people 4. No evidence of military organization or structures D. Around 600 ACE Teotihuacan pop. is declining; the religious and commercial activity declines. E. Around 750 ACE abandon their city as well as another civilization near them, the toltecs (who lived near the pacific ocean) F. Around 800 ACE mayan cities are abandoned III. Fall of Classic Age A. Possible reasons 1. Food crisis a) Reduces trade between cities bc everyone has the same crisis 2. Droughts a) No rain= no harvest b) Contributed to the food crisis 3. Ruling class became elitists and brutal towards working class a) Ruling class grew due to the practice of polygamy (1) War over power among elite class→ civil war 4. No continuity → simply abandonment B. Case of the Mayan IV. Postclassic Age 9001521 A. New era 1. Age of the Great empires (the Toltecs first, then the Mexicas) 2. Warfare is a permanent feature in society of Meso america a) Military is the dominant class/ in power B. Fortified centers 1. Chichimecs their nomadic lifestyle and the period warfare motivates the rapture of other lands 2. They began to settle down→ acculturation a) Toltecs/ chichimecas create the cities of Tula/Culhuaca C. Cholula 1. Sacred/ religious village 2. Historical 3. This location was important for the acculturation of the Chichimecas 4. Spanish recognised as religious importance a) Now is located in Puebla. Spanish built a church right on top of the temple (1) Representation of continuity
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