CHS 200, Chapters 8 & 14 notes
CHS 200, Chapters 8 & 14 notes CHS 200
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Sauer on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 200 at University of Nevada Reno taught by Dr. Logan Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health Biology in Biology, Chemistry, Community Health Sciences, Core Humanities, Nutrition at University of Nevada Reno.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
CHS 200 Chapters 8 &14 Notes Note: Anything that is highlighted was either on a quiz or specifically noted by Dr. Hamill as content that will be on the exam. So know these! Chapter 8 Health behavior is the behavioral choices and actions of individuals (Biological, psychological, social and environmental factors are involved) The leading causes of death in the United States are chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke These mortality causes are associated with a multitude of common behavioral risk factors About half of the U.S. deaths attributed to the 10 leading causes of death. “Healthy People 2010” is a national initiative that has brought considerable attention to the need to target the modifiable behaviors that impact health. Poor behavior choices can affect the individual making the poor behavior choice as well as those around them. Social Cognitive Theory was first applied by Albert Bandura o Theory proposes that individuals learn through observation of the behaviors of others and the rewards that others receive as an outcome of their actions. o Cognitive processes mainly regulate an individual’s behavior so that individuals do not simply respond to stimuli unconsciously, but rather they think about and interpret it. o Reciprocal Determinism is the interaction of an individual’s personal factors, actions, and environmental factors that help explain the overall behavior o Individual’s selfefficacy (confidence in own ability to carry out positive behavior) can change to reach their outcome expectancy Theory of Reasoned Action o Decision to engage in a specific behavior is rooted in an individual’s personal attitude toward that behavior o Focuses on attitudes and subjective norms to predict the execution of a certain behavior o Attitudes are comprised of behavioral beliefs that performing certain actions will be associated with certain outcomes. o Subjective norms are the individual’s beliefs about whether other people approve or disapprove of engaging in a certain behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior o Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (add idea of perceived behavior control) o Perceived behavior control accounts for factors beyond an individual’s immediate control that also can have an effect on the individual’s intention o Helps us predict the likelihood of an individual carrying out certain actions Health Belief Model o Used to describe the influence and power of perception in changing and maintaining health behaviors o Emphasizes an individual’s desire to avoid being ill o Expectancy that a specific health behavior will ward off illness or enhance health o Perceived susceptibility is an individual’s perception of the probability they will acquire a disease or illness, which is usually reduced when one believes they are vulnerable to illness o Cuestoaction may also trigger a change in health behaviors (media publicity, public figure battling illness, the loss of a close friend or family member to illness) Transtheoretical Model o Uses stages of change to describe the distinct phases through which an individual progresses to change a behavior. o PreContemplation stage: individual is unaware of their actions or of the consequences of their behavior. Have not considered changing their behavior. o Contemplation stage: individual has begun to become aware of the health implications associated with their current behavior. Start to consider what actions are required to reduce health risks o Preparation stage: individual decided on a particular action plan o Action stage: individual has taken tangible actions to reduce their health risks. There is still risk for relapsing while in this stage. o Maintenance stage: individual accepts ongoing effort required to support long term behavioral change. *Know the order of the stages and what generally goes on in each stage! Chapter 14 *Note: There is a lot of information in the book for this chapter. These notes will not cover all of the chapter, only because you do not need to know the whole thing! Worldwide: 6 million people die from injury, 3 million die from AIDS, 2.6 million die from Malaria, and less than 1.5 million die from Diarrhea a year Injury is the leading cause of death for Americans age 1 to 44 and the primary cause of lost years of productive life For those aged 1 to 34, injury claims more lives than all other causes combined. Total cost of injuries including acute and rehabilitative medical car, lost wages, and lost productivity adds up to $406 billion a year. Injuries are not accidents Alcohol is a major injury risk factor. (40% of fatal motor vehicle crashes, half of drowning deaths) Other risk factors include personality, group dynamics, social norms (peer pressure), and perception of personal risk (overconfidence) Intentional injuries are results of things like assault, domestic violence, attempted murder, war, and selfharm (suicide) Injuries occur when the tissues of the human body absorb energy that is above the tissue threshold. Four types of energies involved: kinetic (falls, motor vehicle crashes), electrical (lightning strikes, downed wires), chemical (poisoning), and thermal/radiant energy (steam or flame burns) Inelastic Collision is a collision in which some or all of the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies is absorbed by at least one of the partners. This typically means that the weaker or softer item absorbs energy from the stiffer, more unyielding one. The Five E’s of Injury Control o Education: spread of knowledge that can prevent injuries (Don’t Drink and Drive, seat belt education) o Engineering Solutions: creation of physical mechanisms that may prevent serious injuries (air bags, guardrails, crumple zones) o Economic Incentives: including money as an enforcement factor (speeding tickets, seat belt fine) o Enforcement: physical implementation of injury preventing laws (jail) o Empowerment: changing social expectations (people will not drive after drinking, people automatically buckle their seatbelt) The Haddon Matrix o A framework for understanding the opportunities for intervention with injury control. Human Vector/Vehicle Physical/Social Environment Preevent Intoxication Tire Pressure Speed Cameras Speed Brake Functioning Weather/Visibility Seat Belt Use Crumple Zones Social Culture Alertness/sleepiness Air Bags Willingness to allow Experience others to drive while intoxicated During Event Using cell phone Speed of impact Flammability while driving Air bag deployment Guardrails Age Size Stiffness of fixed Size Stiffness of surfaces objects Failty Stability control Barriers Embankments PostEvent BMI Degree of crash EMS response Age Fuel system integrity Trauma center Comorbid Conditions availability (already existing Rehab programs medical conditions at time of injury)
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