Psych 101 Notes
Psych 101 Notes Psychology 101
Popular in principles of psychology 101
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Allyson Meloni in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see principles of psychology 101 in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Principles of Psychology Mod 3 Professor Meloni HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK & ANSWER QUESTIONS 1) The Scientific Method a) Process of testing ideas about the world b) Allows us to: i) Make carful and organized observations ii) Test ideas iii) Analyze whether data fits ideas c) Uses statistics Continual process of making theories then hypothesis then obtaining data then revising original theories. d) 5 MAIN STEPS: i) Theory (observation) – explaining ii) Hypothesis (prediction)- making a statement iii) Operation definition)- carefully worded statement of the exact procedure taken iv) Replication- repeating the study with different participants and placing them in different situations OPTIC can be used as an acronym to remember the 5 steps O- Observation (theory) P-Prediction (hypothesis) T-Testing (collection of data) I- Interpretation C- Conclusion 2) Testing Hypothesis and Refining Theories a) Description i) No prediction or hypothesis ii) Getting detailed information, descriptive research design iii) Involves: case studies (in-depth study of groups or individuals), naturalistic observations (watching and recording behavior of a group in their natural environment), and surveys and interviews (asking questions in less depth) b) Correlation i) Mow closely measured two factors vary together, or how well they can predict a change in one another ii) Positive correlation- (0 to +1.00) two variables are moving in the same direction (increase or decrease together) iii) Negative Correlation- (0 to -1.00) two factors vary in opposite directions (ne increases the other decreases) iv) Correlation coefficient- strength of two variables together v) Causation vi) Experiments 3) Regression Toward the Mean- tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back toward the average i) Illusory Correlation- perception of a relationship between two variables when only a minor or no relationship actually exists ii) Feed an illusion of control iii) This happens in gamblers, believing that chance events are controlled personally iv) Ex. Wearing ‘lucky socks’ to sports events after first win with socks 4) Correlation vs Causation 5) Experimentation a) Allows us to determine the causes and effects b) Isolates the effects of one or more factors by: i) Eliminating biases- uses double blind procedure where neither the groups or those administering the test know who will be receiving the treatment ii) Placebo effect- results are caused by expectations alone (ex. Thinking you are getting treated will boost your spirit, this reduces pain and stress) c) Uses both control groups (does nothing) and experimental groups (does something) d) Variables are anything that can change during an experiment i) Confounding variable- factor that is changed to see if there will be an effect on the dependent variable ii) Independent variable- factor that is manipulated, aside from the confounding variable iii) Dependent variable- only changes when the independent variable is manipulated) 6) Predicting Real Behavior a) Experimental purpose (testing of theories) b) Resulting principals (helps explain everyday theories) c) Psychological science (helps explain and create principals to explain behaviors) Yellow= vocabulary underline= key word Principles of Psychology Mod 4 Professor Meloni STATISTICAL REASOING IN EVERYDAY LIFE 1. Statistics- branch of mathematics used to simplify and organize data a. Used to describe data b. Used to infer data c. Often presented in graphic or visual form 2. Descriptive Statistics a. Summary of how often statistics occur b. Frequency distribution- data organized like a chart to make it understandable i. Histogram- use of bar graph to simplify data ii. Frequency polygon- use of line graph to represent data iii. Distribution- all scores in a data set c. Positive Skew i. Scores are higher at the lower end of the scale 6 Series 1 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Series 1 d. Negative Skew i. Scores are higher at higher end of scale Series 1 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Series 1 e. Normal Curve- bell shaped curve on a graph symmetrical with the mean, median, and mode (mean, median, and mode are all the same number) f. Measure of central tendency- a single number that presents info about the center of frequency distribution i. Mean- average, sum of all scores divided by number of all scores ii. Median divides distribution in half iii. Mode- most frequently occurring number g. Measure of variability- gives us info on every score in the distribution i. Range- the highest score minus the lowest score ii. Standard deviation- distance measured between the mean and set data (the larger the standard deviation, the more spread out the distribution is) iii. Variability- spread of scores in a distribution h. Correlation - allows us to establish a relationship between two variables i. Positive correlation- variables are moving in the same direction ii. Negative correlation- variables are moving in opposite direction i. Correlation coefficient- statistical relation between two variables (ranges from perfect +1.00 too negative -1.00) i. Strong correlation- ex. -6.8 or -2.1 ii. 6.8 is stronger because it is a larger number even though -6.8 is less than - 2.1 3. Inferential Statistics a. Allows us to draw conclusions based on the data collected b. Allows us to decide if our data is factual or false c. Info about a sample can be used to make an inference about the population Population- whole Sample- half (specifically chosen) parts of the population d. Errors: i. Type 1- saying results are true when they are false ii. Type 2- saying no data is found when there is data
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