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Chapter 1 lecture notes

by: Annie Estes

Chapter 1 lecture notes CH 271

Marketplace > Whitworth University > Chemistry > CH 271 > Chapter 1 lecture notes
Annie Estes
Whitworth University
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About this Document

These notes cover what was included in the Chapter 1 lectures
Organic Chemistry
Dr. Flay
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annie Estes on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 271 at Whitworth University taught by Dr. Flay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Whitworth University.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 1 1.1 Organic Chem: C + H, N, O, S, P, halogens  Biochemistry, DNA, pharmaceuticals 1.2  Constitutional Isomers: same formula, differ in 3D special arrangement o Ex: C2H6O  Valencies in org. chem o Tetra, tri, di, mono o Known as bonding groups o All about electrons 1.3  Bonds: o Ionic: complete charge separation [full + and -] o Covalent: shared pair of electrons o Polar covalent: unequal shared pairs of electrons o Very different properties o Based on electronegativity differences o Stronger bonds = closer together  Valence e- (1A—8A)  Basic lewis structure (octet rule)  **important** lone pair affects molecular geometry when # bonding groups are considered 1.4  Formal charge: mostly a concern for S, PA  O: likes 2 bonds  N: likes 3 bonds  C: likes 4 bonds  H: 1 bond only  Halogens: like 1 bonds  If an atom has 1 more bond, it becomes + o Because of lone pair of electrons  If an atom as 1 less bond, it becomes – 1.5  Induction and polar covalent bonds o Based on delta electronegativity between atoms 1.6 Atomic Orbitals  Atomic orbitals o Aufbau principle: lowest E filled first o Pauli Exclusion principle: 2e- per orbital // opposite spin o Hundt’s rule: e- won’t pair up unless they have to 1.7 Valence Bond  Overlap of atomic orbitals  E- density between atoms (sharing) is constructive interference  Sigma bonds = single bonds 1.8 Molecular Orbital Theory  Bonds are constructive interferences between overlapping atomic orbitals  Molecular orbitals deal with entire molecule o Atomic orbitals cease to exist  Will have bonding and antibonding orbitals (higher energy) because of constructive interference 1.9 Hybridized Atomic Orbitals  Hybridized: mathematically averaged, shook up  Double bonds: sp2 hybridization  Triple bonds: sp hybridization o Short, close bonds 1.10 VSEPR – molecular geometrics  Look at # bonding groups/atoms  Look at # lone pairs – polarity o Affects molecular geometry! 1.11 Dipole Moments and Molecular Polarity  Dipole moment: an indicator of polarity 1.12 intermolecular forces  Intermolecular forces: electrostatic forces of attraction  Dipole-dipole o H-Cl  Hydrogen Bonding o (N, O, F – H) o H2O  Fleeting dipole-dipole = dispersion (London Forces) o CH4  Branching lowers BP!  Cyclization raises BP—stronger intermolecular forces 1.13 Solubility  Likes dissolve likes o Likeness of intermolecular forces


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