PR weeks 4 and 5 (some post exam 1 materials)
PR weeks 4 and 5 (some post exam 1 materials) PUR 3000 (3A93)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PUR 3000 (3A93) at University of Florida taught by Mickey Nall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 5: Research Research is the: ● The basic groundwork of any PR program. It involves the gathering and interpretation of information. Research is used in every phase of a communications progra . ● Defining research role: it’s the listening mechanism ○ Research: give context to the product, the product, the audience ○ Listening process: validity and reliability Why Research? To... ● Determine the roblem ● “ the kind of informati hat is needed ● To formulate strategy ● “ the publics, and how they should be researched ○ To define audiences nd segment publics ● “ how much it will c recommendation: between 5 and 10% of your budget should be spent on measurement. ) ● “ how the results will be needed ○ “ how the research data will be analyzed, reported, and applied ● To achieve credibility with management ● Test messages ● Help management keep in t ouch ● Prevent crises ○ 90% of all crises could be avoided with research because these are organizational problems. ○ If you’re monitoring social media you can view trends. ● Monitor the ompetition ● Sway public opinion ● Generate publicity off the research you do: ○ It can become a press release. ● Measure s uccess Four public relations processes: ● R search ● Action ● Communication ● Evaluation ● Stewardship Research techniques: ● Qualitative research: soft research that allows researchers to gain insights into how individuals behave, think, and make decisions. It’s used to ascertain whether key messages were communicated by the media. ○ content analysis the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of information ○ Interviews: takes a profession intercept interviews ○ focus groups opinion of the 10 to 12 people in the room, you cannot extrapolate it ○ copy testing: ○ ethnographic techniques: o bservation and roleplaying. ● Quantitative research: hard research that you can extract and apply to general population because there is only a 35% margin of error. ○ Based on randomness and a large number of respondents. ○ Effective polls and surveys require random sample. In statistics, this means that everyone in the targeted audience as defined by the researcher has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey. (AKA robability sample) ○ Demands scientific rigor and proper sampling procedures so that info will be representative of the general population. Random sampling gives everyone in the target audience the chance to be in the sample. Sample size determines the margin of error in the statistical findings ● Secondary research: information data that has been collected by someone else (google search) ○ Begins by doing archival research: reviews an organization’s data on sales, profile of customers, and so on ○ Information from library and online databases ● Primary research: research you put together through a scientific process and you put it through. How To reach Respondents: ● Mailed questionnaires ● Telephone surveys ● Personal interviews ● Omnibus surveys ● Web and email surveys Questionnaire Construction: ● Consider wording, biased questions, politically correct answers, and answer categories. ● Number of guidelines: deciding what you want to find out, keeping the questionnaire relatively short, defining the target audience, and selecting the appropriate sample size. Chapter 6: Program Planning: second step in the PR method The Value of planning: after research, PR plans a program/campaign to accomplish organizational objectives. Planning must be strategic, creative, and pay close attention to reaching key audiences. A program’s objectives can be purely informational to create awareness, or more motivational to actually increase participation Approaches to planning ● Management by objective: MBO, ystematically categorizes objectives, communication strategies, audiences, and the essence of the message. PR firms often have their own planning model, which often includes market research, demographic segmentation of target audiences, and establishment of key messages. ○ Provides focus and direction for formulating strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives ○ Ensures the production of relevant messages and establishes criteria against which campaign results can be measured ○ An agency planning model: features of the Ketchum plan (Facts, Goals, Audience, and Key message) and Doubletree’s chocolate chip cookies. ○ Every objective needs to be measured. 1. Client/employer objectives 2. audience/publics 3. Audience objectives 4. Media channels 5. Media channel objectives 6. Sources and questions 7. Communication strategies: usually based on budget 8. Essence of the message “message drivers” 9. Nonverbal support: visuals, not just the written word, is becoming increasingly important for millennials ● A strategic planning model Elements of a Program Plan ● Eight basic elements: 1. Situation: what the hell’s going on ● The organization must conduct a r emedial program to overcome a problem or negative situation ● The organization needs to conduct a specific, netime project t o launch a new product or service ● The organization wants to reinforce an ngoing e ffort to preserve its reputation and public support 2. Objectives ● Informational objectives: facts ○ Message exposure and accurate dissemination of messages are the most important. ● Motivational objectives: measurable objectives that center around behavior and emotion 3. Audience 4. Strategy: describes how and why campaign components will achieve objectives ● Key messages ● New frontier for strategy: embrace theories of communication as a basis for strategy recommendations 5. Tactics: the nuts and bolts part of the plan. They describe the specific activities that put each strategy into operation and help to achieve the stated objectives 6. calendar/timetable ● The timing of a campaign ● Scheduling of tactics ● Compiling a Calendar ● Figure 6.1 on p 158 7. Budget: divided into 2 categories: a. Staff time b. Out of pocket expenses OOP 8. Evaluation ● Pre and post surveys ● How many times did the cash register ring? Quiz Review: ● In an organization, staff functions operate at 3 levels of influence and authority: authority, concurring authority, and compulsory advisory ● Corporate communications describes the PR department of an organization ● Secondary research is the data collected from places, such as books, magazines, and the internet ● Content analysis is a type of qualitative research technique that is used to measure the amount and nature of media coverage. ● Personal interview research needs skilled personnel ● Management by objectives is an approach to planning that ensures the production of relevant messages. ● An objective provides the logic behind planned activities. Chapter 8: Evaluation Research A ction ommunications and Evaluations The Purpose of Evaluation: the systematic assessment of a program and its results. ● Valued fourth step to PR: about measuring results so that the company or product will be better. ● No shame in admitting to failure, it’s easy to skew the evaluations. Objectives: A prerequisite for Evaluation ● Determine your evaluation technique during the planning stage. You can’t write an objective without determining a way to measure it. ● Must have a business plan/objective ● 45% or 10% of expenditures on evaluation. ○ In reality, web analytics are very inexpensive/free, so companies are spending more time on evaluations but not necessarily more money. ● Techniques: measurement of ○ Production ○ Message exposure ○ Audience Awareness ○ Audience Attitudes ○ Audience Actions. Current Status of Measurement and Evaluation ● PR is more art than science ● It is possible to measure PR effectiveness and it does not have to be either unbelievably expensive or laborious timeconsuming. ● Figure 8.1 ● On the most basic level (where most PR firms evaluate) are compilations of message distribution and media placement. this measures outputs, but should measure outcome. ● On a second level, which requires more sophisticated techniques, deals with the measurement of audience awareness, comprehension, and retention of the message. Requires research pre and post ● The most dvanced level is the measurement of changes in attitudes, opinions and behavior. Time and budget necessary, a lot of companies don’t want to take the time or money to do this depth of an evaluation Measurement of Production: ● Several levels ○ One elementary form of evaluation is simply to count how many news releases, feature stories, photos, guest editorials, blog postings, and the like, are produced in a given period of time. This kind of evaluation is supposed to give management an idea of a staff’s productivity and output. ■ PR professionals don’t believe this evaluation is very meaningful, because it emphasizes quantity instead of quality. Measurement of Message Exposure: ● Media Impressions: the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broadcast program, or a website ● Tracking Internet Visitor: hits/visits ● Advertising value equivalency (AVE): (worst way to judge or evaluate pr not valid) the dollarvalue approach to measuring publicity effectiveness. ○ Defenders of AVE: such metrics help corporate management put a value on PR. ○ Others say it helps marketing execs decide how to split resources between PR and marketing. ○ A more defensible dollar evaluation can be made for messages such as PSAs on radio or tv, which are controlled by the creator much like a paid commercial would be. ○ At the same time, equativing publicity with advertising rates for comparable space does not engender good media relations. ● Systematic Tracking: ○ Computer software and databases analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key copy points. ○ Specialty measurement firms use metrics like: ■ Analysis of coverage telling how a company's news coverage compares with that of the competition ■ Share the voice in terms of what % of overall coverage about an industry or subject focuses on the client company ■ Tone showing whether the slant of coverage is positive or negative. ■ % of time that stories mention key messages ■ Analysis of what 3rd party experts, consumers, and bloggers say about the organization ○ Baseline study: a measurement of audience response (awareness, understanding, or attitudes and opinions) before, during, and after a PR campaign. ● Requests and 800 Numbers: ○ Toll free ○ Requests for materials also can show the effectiveness of a PR program. ● Return on Investment (ROI) ○ Costeffectiveness is used in PR ○ Cost per Thousand (CPM): is calculated by taking the cost of the publicity program and dividing it by the total media impressions ○ Increasingly, PR professionals are measuring PR in terms of ■ What sales or revenues are generated ■ How much they have saved the company in terms of avoiding a crisis or litigation Measurement of Audience Awareness ● The internationally recognized advocacy group Health Literacy Missouri conducts annual surveys of media in the state to assess awareness of the organization, but more importantly, of health literacy as a crucial factor in the health and wellbeing of everyday citizens ● Measuring audience awareness and comprehension with dayafter recall offers a credible metric for evaluating the impact of a campaign component. Measurement of Audience Attitudes Measurement of Audience Actions: raising awareness and raising interest are the first two steps of the fivestep process to ultimately motivate people to adopt an idea, vote for a candidate, use a service, or buy a product. Measurement of Supplemental Activities: ● Communication Audits ● Pilot Tests and Split Messages ● Meeting and Event Attendance ●
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