Chapter 3 Review of Notes
Chapter 3 Review of Notes Pols 1101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by D'Angel Brooks on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Lakeyta Bonnette in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see American Government in Government at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 3 Federalism Notes Federalism- the division of powers and functions between the state and national governments. The Federalists and Antifederalists had different opinions on the structure of the national government and the balance of power between the central government and the states. Antifederalists and the Vice Presidency "The Vice President of the United States shall be the president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided." - Article 1, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution -*The Antifederalists were against this* The Federal Framework Federalism – power is divided by a constitution, between a central government and the states Governments organize the balance of power between the central government and the states in different ways : Confederations, Federal Systems, Unitary Systems : - Confederations- power within the states - Federal Systems- Central government and the states - Unitary Systems- mostly in the central government National Government Powers – - Expressed powers: collect taxes, coin money, declare war, regulate commerce (powers specifically listed in the Constitution - Implied powers: "the necessary and proper" (elastic clause) ; powers the national government has from their implication in the Constitution (not specifically listed in the Constitution) State Government Powers – - reserved powers: police powers(powers to regulate health, safety, and morals of its citizens) - Share Concurrent Powers: regulate commerce, affect currency, licenses, etc. (powers shared between the states and the national government) - 10 Amendment: powers not given to the federal government are reserved for the states *Antifederalists were against a strong national gov. So they wanted this to become ratified immediately* Historical Events Related to Federalism Nullification Doctrine(1830s) & "States' Rights" - Anything that the states believed was unconstitutional, they could declare void acts of Congress. This idea was rejected. The Civil War (1860s) - the decision was that state's rights issue by blood and secured dominance of the federal government. th The Civil Rights Movement (mid-1900s) - courts forced states to desegregate by using the 14 Amendment and commerce clause The 4 Faces of Federalism throughout History I.Dual Federalism II. Cooperative Federalism III. Regulated Federalism IV. New Federalism Stage I: Dual Federalism (1789-1937) "layer cake"- most powers were shared between the federal and state governments, central gov. Focused on promotion of commerce and distribution of resources, but states had most of the power Stage II: Cooperative Federalism "marble cake"- National gov. Began expanding its role into matters that had been reserved to the states, began offering grants-in-aid to make sure that states cooperated. Block grants- given to states for general reasons , gave state officials discretion on how money would be spent Formula grants- a formula is used to determine how much money would be given to states Categorical grants- given to states for specific reasons , and gave the federal officials the discretion on how the money would be spent Stage III: Regulated Federalism – When the state and local governments became dependent on the grant-in-aid support from the national government, the national government began to threaten the local and state governments to withhold those grants which is known as Coercive Federalism. The national government began reaching into matters that normally had been states matters in order to try to increase control and impose more uniform national standards.The best way to exemplify the transfer of federal power is by unfunded mandates, where the national government compels state and local governments action but does not provide them funding. Stage IV: New Federalism & State Control – Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal coalition and program starts a counter – federal trend, known as New Federalism. Devolution – federal government should return powers to the states The removal of a program from one level of government by passing it down to a lower level of government. o Ex: PWRA 1996 Personal Work and Responsibility Act of 1996 Federalism, Good & Bad Good points: more opportunities for participation Increases number of access points to government Regional interests have effective representation in both Congress and State governments Allows for innovation at state-level Bad points: Inequities across states Too many governments(87,000) Local interests can thwart national majority. Federalist #51: Separation of Powers, Checks & Balances *on test* Factions can be controlled by: o Giving each institution the "means and the motives" to check the other: Means: Checks, including the presidential veto, senatorial approval of nominations, judicial review, etc. Motives: Different constituencies, different electoral cycles, so each gets power from different source. o Diffusing power within national government & between levels of government.
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