Anthro 101 Chapter 5 notes
Anthro 101 Chapter 5 notes Anthro 101
Eastern Oregon University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ceara on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 101 at Eastern Oregon University taught by David Leone in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see in Cultural Anthropology at Eastern Oregon University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter Chiefdom: a political economy that organizes regional populations in the thousands or tens of thousands in a hierarchy of leaders, or chiefs. Chief's: own, manage and control the basic productive factors of the economy and have privileged access to strategic and luxury goods. Regional symbiosis: What the environments of pacific islands, the mississippi region, and the northwest coast of north america. Barter: the direct exchange of one commodity to another. Kula: The ceremonial trade of valued objects that took place among a number of the trobriand islands. Redistributional economic exchange: involves the exchange of goods and resources through a centralized organization. Hierarchical society: in which some people have access to more wealth, rank, status, authority and power than other people do. Sumptuary Rules: cultural norms and practices used to differentiate the higherstatus groups from the rest of society. Adjudication: the settling of legal disputes through centralized authority. Theocracies: societies in which people rule not because of their worldly wealth and power, but because of their place in the moral and sacred order. Tabu: polynesian term for a variety of special restrictions or prohibitions that had spiritual connotations. Mana: term that means the polynesians believed that people are imbued with cosmic forces Chapter 11: Intensive agriculture: the cultivation of crops by preparing permanent fields year after year, often using irrigation and fertilizers. Civilization: the term loosely implies a complex society with a number of characteristics, including dense populations located in urban centers. Theatre state: limited form of state society in southeast asia. Galactic polity: a type of state that rules primarily through religious authority and cosmologies, whereas a radial polity is a state that rules more directly through government and military officials that have more centralized control over various provinces and regions. Feudalism: a decentralized form of political economy based on landed estates, existed in agricultural civilizations during different historical periods. Tribute: in the form of taxes. Rent or labor services, replaced economic exchanges based on kinship reciprocity or chiefdom redistribution. Peasants: people who cultivate land in rural areas for their basic subsistence and pay tribute to elite groups. Moral economy: involved sharing food resources and labor with one another in a reciprocal manner to provide a form of social and economic insurance so that individual families would not fall into destitution. Dowry: goods and wealth paid by the bride’s family to the groom’s family Purdah: a persian word that is translated as “curtain” or “barrier”. Closed societies: families classified because highly stratified and social mobility was generally restricted to people with elite family or kinship backgrounds. Caste: an endogamous social grouping into which a person is born and in which the person remains throughout his or her lifetime. Ecclesiastical religions Universalistic religions: other religious traditions that developed in early agricultural societies. Rites of legitimation: reinforced the divine authority of the ruler Chapter 12: industrial society: uses sophisticated technology based on machinery powered by advanced fuels to produce material goods. A primary feature in comparison with pre industrial societies is that most productive labor involves factory and office work, rather than agricultural or foraging activities. Mercantilism: a system in which the government regulates the economy of a state to ensure economic growth, a positive balance of trade, and the accumulation of gold and silver. Industrialization: the adoption of a mechanized means of production to transform raw materials into manufactured goods. Modernization The economic, social, political, and religious changes related to modern industrial and technological change. Demographic transition: in which birth rates and death rates decline. Market economy: a pattern of economic exchange based upon the value of goods and services determined by the supply and demand of items such as commodities land and also labor. Primary sector: represents the part of the industrial economy devoted to the extraction of raw materials and energy; it includes agriculture, lumber, fishing and mining. The secondary sector: includes the factories that take the raw materials and process them for consumption. Tertiary sector, sometimes referred to as the service sector, includes the financial and banking industries and other industries such as automobile repair. Socialism: an economic system in which the state, ideally as the representative of the people, owns the basic means of productions. Oligopoly: when a few giant corporations control production in major industries. Monopoly capitalism: a form of capitalism dominated by large corporations that can reduce free competition through the concentration of capital. Multinational corporations: economic organizations that operate in many different regions of the world. Feminism: the belief that women are equal to men and should have equal rights and opportunities. Open societies: societies where social status can be achieved through individual efforts. Nationalism: a strong sense of loyalty to the nation state based upon shared language, values and culture. Secularization: the historical decline in the influence of religion in society. Video Lecture: cultural anthropology: the study of all aspects of human behavior. instincts and reflexes: Since instincts are recorded in our genes, they are not considered cultural behaviors. culture is learned, we are not born with it. as a human you inherit the social predisposition to teach and learn culture as needed. the role of language and communication is essential to culture. language structures the reality of the world around us. It is the product of our culture the rules that you learn in your culture will dictate how you behave for the rest of your life. Culture in a sense is organic as it can be changed over time, this also means that culture can be born and die out one rule is to document cultures over time. we adapt to culture for survival purposes all change over time keeping culture records, allows us to document information of different environments levels of culture: most often differentiated according to levels of organization. levels of culture: species, societal, family, association, individual (ego and id).
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