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by: Shelby Samojedny

Rel_340_Notes_week_4docx.pdf 340

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Religion > 340 > Rel_340_Notes_week_4docx pdf
Shelby Samojedny
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Typed up week 4 notes that might be helpful for Tuesday's quiz. Anything with a star next to it indicates that it's going to be on the quiz!
Jon Keune
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Samojedny on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 340 at Michigan State University taught by Jon Keune in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Hinduism in Religion at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Professor Jon Kuene Hinduism 340 Week 4 notes for quiz Who was Manu? -Viewed as first human -Mentioned in one story; Satapatha Brahmana -Main source: Puranas (c.300-500 ce.) -Vast time spans -4 yugas = 1 manayuga = 4.32 million years -71 mahayugas = 1 manvatara = 306 million years - governed by one Manu -14 manavantaras = 1 day of Brahma, Kalpa Decline of Dharma over time -Yuga; era, age -1 human year = 1 god-day/night -360 god-day/nights = 1 god year 1. Krta /4800 god-years/ “Golden Age” 2. Treta / 3600 god-years 3. Dvapara / 2400 god-years 4. Kali / 1200 / “Age of Strife” -Kali is not the same as the goddess Kali -Image of the standing cow Hindu Philosophy -Implicit; What differentiates us from Nastikas? -What exists-ultimately, eternally? -Where do people fit in this reality? -What is ignorance or illusion? -How do we get reliable knowledge? 6 Means of Valid Knowledge (Pramanas) 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Comparison/Analogy 4. Postulation -Circumstantial Reasoning 5. Non-perception 6. Sabda- Reliable Word *6 Darsanas (Seeings, Schools) 1. Samkhya (number); Dualism and Speculative liberation 2. Yoga; Dualism and Practical Liberation 3. Nyaya; Logic and Epistemology 4. Vaisesika; Distinctions and Metaphysics 5. Mimamsa (Purva); Hermeneutics and Ritual, Duty 6. Vedanta; Hermeneutics and Liberation Samkhya and Yoga -2 components of reality * - Purusa; Consciousness, “spirit” * - Prakrti; Material -3 Qualities (Gunas) - Sattva; Brightness, purity, calmness - Rajas; Activity, Passion - Tamas; Dullness, Inertia -Purusa mixes with Prakrti and forgets itself - Goal = Disentanglement - Samkhya; Atheist: What is reality? -Yoga; Theist: How to be liberated Nyaya and Vaieska -Strongly concerned with Pramanas -Most important = Perception – How? -What’s logically valid? -How do words related to objects? -Testimony = Human and Vedic -Basic components of the universe -6 atoms -6 basic components of all experience -Less concerned about god or liberation Mimamsa (Purva) -2 kinds: Earlier and Later (Purva and Uttara) - Karmakanda vs. Jhanakanda -Vedic institutions – Good results -Performing rituals -Non-ascetic -Orthoprax -Great interest in words -Mantras -Hermeneutics -Is god needed? -Why? Because it’s in the Vedas Vedanta -Most influential -Mystical or Experiential -Focused on Upanishads -Mahavakyas -Goal; Moksa (liberation) -Hinge question, how does individual relate to Brahman? *-Advaita; Nondual, Non-difference -Visistadvaita; Qualified nondualism -Dvaita; Dual, Fundamental Difference -Bhedabheda; Difference and Non-difference -Proper self/Brahman understanding – Moksa -In practice: Guru, 3 step path Advaita Vedanta -Famous Philosopher; Sankara -Atman and Brahman = Not different -Faulty superimposition -Sublation -Contra Maya and Avidya Some Takeaways -Vedas can be used in many ways -Philosophical schools don’t neatly fit the box “religion” -One can be Astika without Gods/God -Hindus may have vastly difference ultimate goals The Great Epics -Mahabharata and Ramayana -Composed 300 BCE to 400 CE -Many recensions -Modern scholars-critical editions -What was happening at the time? -Maurya decline and aftermath -Intellectual fermet -Everything is in the epics *Mahabharata (MBh) -The great Bharatas/sons of Bharat -Vast poem internecine war -Sons of Pandu (Pandaras) vs. Sons of Kuru (Kauvavas) -Vyasa -Complexities of proper dharma -Can violence (himsa) help establish dharma on Earth? -Hindu response to rise of non-Hindu kingdoms? -Many ideas, philosophies rd th -Said to occur btw 3 and 4 yugas *Bhagavad Gita (BhG) -Part of MBh; Functionally – Independent -Dialogue: Krsna counsel to Arjuna -A despairs before the battle -K explains A’s duty to fight -Major teachings: *-3 yoga’s; Karma, Jhana, Bhatki -non-attachment to fruits *- “better to one’s dharma poorly than another’s well” -Krsna self-revelation Ramayana -Adaptable story -Rama and Sita = Ideal(ized) male and female -Many recensions; -Valmiki Ramayana; Sanskrit, roughly 25k verses long -Kampan; Tamil -Candrabati; Bengali -Supports Caste, traditional roles -Ethically straightforward- (Good vs. Evil) -Often retold -Ramlila -TV series in 1987-8 - “Sita Sings the Blues” (2008) – D2L Later Use of the Epics *-Ramaya -religious: source for Rama devotion -popular: Ramlilas staged around the world -political: source of imagery/mythology for Hindu nationalists -Mahabharata -foundational text & reference point -not so popular as Ramayana -Bhagavad Gtha -19 c. – BhG as the “Hindu Bible” -Indian PM gifts copies to other world leaders -many interpretations -pro-violent resistance (BG Tilak) -pro-nonviolent resistance (Gandhi) -commonly interpretation: focus on activity, not reward 


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