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EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 3 notes

by: Jenna Notetaker

EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 3 notes EBIO 1030-002

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Biology > EBIO 1030-002 > EBIO 1030 001 002 Biology Human Approach 1 week 3 notes
Jenna Notetaker

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community ecology
Biology-Human Approach 1
Caitlin Kelly
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
E­Biology Week 3 Community ecology­ examines how interactions between species affect community structure Community structure­ the composition of the community, including species diversity and is  influenced by: abiotic factors, gradients of topography, species interactions Species diversity­ species richness (the number of species), species evenness (abundance of each  species) Symbiosis­ long­term, direct interactions between two or more species  Commensalism­ helps one species but doesn’t affect the other (neither species harms or benefits  the other) Mutualism­ both species benefit  Facultative­ helpful but not vital Obligatory­ must participate in association Coevolution­ evolving together  Two species may protect one another  Parasite­ live in or on another organism from which it gets nutrition (weakens but doesn’t kill) Brood parasitism­ one egg­laying species benefits by having another species raise its young Parasitoids­ insects that lay eggs in another animal (life cycle requires the death of the animal) Competitive interactions­ interspecies competition hurts both species (competition among  individuals of the same species is more intense than interspecific competition) Interference competition­ species reduce the amount of a resource available to the other by using  that resource  Niche­ each species requires specific resources and environmental conditions that we refer to its  ecological niche  Competitive exclusion­ two species cannot coexist if they have identical niches  Realized niche­ the observed niche in nature, where they actually live  Fundamental niche­ potential niche in nature, where they could live Resource partitioning­ natural selection drives competition species into sharing a resource in  ways that minimize competition  Predation­ predator organism obtains energy and nutrients from other organisms As predators get better at hunting, prey gets better at evading which makes predators get better  again…  Prey Physical defense­ increase the handling time means less benefit for the predator  Camouflage­ hide in the open Mimicry­ resemble another dangerous animal  Chemical defense­ warning coloration  Predator  Increase efficiency of prey capture  Camouflage Cooperation behavior Coevolution with herbivores and plants­ withstand and recover quickly from loss, physical  deterrents or chemical deterrents  Ecological succession­ a process in which one array of species replaces another over time  Primary succession­ begins when pioneer species colonize a barren habitat with no soil (pioneer  species are opportunistic colonizers of vacated habitats and help to build the soil layer) Secondary succession­ occurs in a disturbed region in which a community previously existed  (soil is already present)  Pioneer stage ➡? intermediate stage ➡? climax stage (successional stages)  Intermediate disturbance hypothesis­ species richness is greatest in communities where  disturbances are moderate in intensity and frequency (enough time for new colonists to arrive  and become established but not enough time for competitive exclusion to cause extinctions)  Keystone species­ has a disproportionately large effect in a community relative to its abundance  (exerts strong controls over the abundance or distribution of other species)  Indicator species­ especially sensitive to disturbances to the environment  Exotic species­ dispersed from its home range and becomes permanently established in a new  area (invasive species)  Biogeography­ the specific study of how species are distributed in the natural world (species  richness is the highest at the equator and lowest at the poles)  Behavior­ reaction to a stimulus  Proximate cause­ the immediate stimulus it mechanism (the genetic, developmental, and  physiological mechanisms that make a behavior possible) E­Biology Week 3 Ultimate cause­ adaptive significance and evolutionary history (evolutionary significance:  survival and intimately reproduction)  Behavioral genetics­ much variation in behavior results from inherited differences  Oxytocin­ pleasure (the more there is, the higher the chance of mating for life)  Human behavior traits are polygenic and influenced by the environment  Instinctive behavior­ genetic and performed without any prior experience  Learning­ the modification of behavior  Imprinting­ a form of learning that occurs debuting a genetically determined period  Habituation­ learns not to respond to a stimulus that neither has positive or negative effects  Behavioral plasticity­ their behavior traits are altered by environmental factors  Communications signals­ transmit information between members of the same species  Sexual selection­ one sex is the limiting factor for the others reproduction (intersexual selection­  mate choice, intrasexual selection­ mate competition)  Anisogamy­ asymmetrical gamete investment (females invest lots of energy per egg, makes  invest little energy in sperm)  Whoever invests more in the children is choosier on the mate  Precopulatory choice­ can shunt the sperm of preferred to her eggs and reject the sperm of other  males  Make ensuring fertilization­ mate guarding, copulatory plugs, Soren scoops, repeated matings,  increased sperm count 


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