EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 3 notes
EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 3 notes EBIO 1030-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
EBiology Week 3 Community ecology examines how interactions between species affect community structure Community structure the composition of the community, including species diversity and is influenced by: abiotic factors, gradients of topography, species interactions Species diversity species richness (the number of species), species evenness (abundance of each species) Symbiosis longterm, direct interactions between two or more species Commensalism helps one species but doesn’t affect the other (neither species harms or benefits the other) Mutualism both species benefit Facultative helpful but not vital Obligatory must participate in association Coevolution evolving together Two species may protect one another Parasite live in or on another organism from which it gets nutrition (weakens but doesn’t kill) Brood parasitism one egglaying species benefits by having another species raise its young Parasitoids insects that lay eggs in another animal (life cycle requires the death of the animal) Competitive interactions interspecies competition hurts both species (competition among individuals of the same species is more intense than interspecific competition) Interference competition species reduce the amount of a resource available to the other by using that resource Niche each species requires specific resources and environmental conditions that we refer to its ecological niche Competitive exclusion two species cannot coexist if they have identical niches Realized niche the observed niche in nature, where they actually live Fundamental niche potential niche in nature, where they could live Resource partitioning natural selection drives competition species into sharing a resource in ways that minimize competition Predation predator organism obtains energy and nutrients from other organisms As predators get better at hunting, prey gets better at evading which makes predators get better again… Prey Physical defense increase the handling time means less benefit for the predator Camouflage hide in the open Mimicry resemble another dangerous animal Chemical defense warning coloration Predator Increase efficiency of prey capture Camouflage Cooperation behavior Coevolution with herbivores and plants withstand and recover quickly from loss, physical deterrents or chemical deterrents Ecological succession a process in which one array of species replaces another over time Primary succession begins when pioneer species colonize a barren habitat with no soil (pioneer species are opportunistic colonizers of vacated habitats and help to build the soil layer) Secondary succession occurs in a disturbed region in which a community previously existed (soil is already present) Pioneer stage ➡? intermediate stage ➡? climax stage (successional stages) Intermediate disturbance hypothesis species richness is greatest in communities where disturbances are moderate in intensity and frequency (enough time for new colonists to arrive and become established but not enough time for competitive exclusion to cause extinctions) Keystone species has a disproportionately large effect in a community relative to its abundance (exerts strong controls over the abundance or distribution of other species) Indicator species especially sensitive to disturbances to the environment Exotic species dispersed from its home range and becomes permanently established in a new area (invasive species) Biogeography the specific study of how species are distributed in the natural world (species richness is the highest at the equator and lowest at the poles) Behavior reaction to a stimulus Proximate cause the immediate stimulus it mechanism (the genetic, developmental, and physiological mechanisms that make a behavior possible) EBiology Week 3 Ultimate cause adaptive significance and evolutionary history (evolutionary significance: survival and intimately reproduction) Behavioral genetics much variation in behavior results from inherited differences Oxytocin pleasure (the more there is, the higher the chance of mating for life) Human behavior traits are polygenic and influenced by the environment Instinctive behavior genetic and performed without any prior experience Learning the modification of behavior Imprinting a form of learning that occurs debuting a genetically determined period Habituation learns not to respond to a stimulus that neither has positive or negative effects Behavioral plasticity their behavior traits are altered by environmental factors Communications signals transmit information between members of the same species Sexual selection one sex is the limiting factor for the others reproduction (intersexual selection mate choice, intrasexual selection mate competition) Anisogamy asymmetrical gamete investment (females invest lots of energy per egg, makes invest little energy in sperm) Whoever invests more in the children is choosier on the mate Precopulatory choice can shunt the sperm of preferred to her eggs and reject the sperm of other males Make ensuring fertilization mate guarding, copulatory plugs, Soren scoops, repeated matings, increased sperm count
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