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Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 4 Notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 4 Notes PBH205

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Public Health > PBH205 > Introduction to Public Health 205 Week 4 Notes
Lindsey Notetaker

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About this Document

These are notes that I take during the lecture and then the corresponding chapter with vocabulary that goes along in the book.
Introduction to Public Health
Dr. Jin
Class Notes
Public Health, Biostatistics
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016) Chapter 7: Statistics­Making sense of Uncertainty  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes  Need to put the data into regular terms so they can be understood  To find the probability you use the number of event divided by the total number of  population Also use other was to determine them  o Mean which is the average number  of the data  It is fund by adding all the numbers and dividing by how many data points there are  o Mode is the number that occurs the most in a set of data  o Median is the middle number in the data set when they are in increasing order  o Range is the smallest number of the data subtracted from the largest number  The top two cause of deaths in the United States is cardiovascular disease and cancer  Textbook Notes  The science of epidemiology relies almost entirely on statistics  Statistics help to make the information of cause and effect, health risks, and disease cures more understandable for people  There is always some uncertainty with science  o It does not help when some studies say one thing and there’s a study that  contradicts  another study Probability is used to describe the variety and frequency of past outcomes under similar  conditions as a way o predicting s a way of predicting what should happen in the future o This helps to have an idea of what should happen, but statistics sometimes show  that it does not always follow the rules  When the probability is found to be 0.05 or less, the statistic is considered significant   Power is the probability of finding an effect if there is one  o A larger study has more power than a small study  A good secondary preventive care for a disease is screening If tests are too sensitive they yield false negatives  If tests are too specific they yield false positives  Secondary tests are usually needed to follow up to find out if something is wrong Page 1 of 3 Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016) o This is expensive and not very effective due to the first tests giving false results  Lead time bias occurs when increased survival time after diagnosis is counted as success   Over diagnosis bias occurs when the tumors that are detected by the screening are not  likely to progress to the state that they cause symptoms and be life threatening   It is smart to adjust the rats when comparing death rates, birth rates, and so on of different places or types so that the population that is being looked at is similar  The Three Mile Island was a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania that had many  safeguards and experts did not except an accident to occur, but in 1979, an accident  occurred but no one was harm  Risks are on two scales  o Dread   The more dreaded the risk, the less acceptable it is  o Knowability    Unknown risks are less acceptable than known risks Vocabulary Words  Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical       P Value: the probability that an observed result or effect could have occurred by chance  if there had actually been no real effort      False Negative: a mistaken identification of persons as healthy or unaffected when, in  fact, they have the disease or condition being tested for      False Positive: a mistaken identification of persons as affected by some disease or  condition when in fact, they are unaffected by the disease or condition being tested for       Life Expectancy: the number of additional years of life expected at a specified point in  time, such as birth or at age 45      Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL): a measure of the impact of disease or injury in a  population, YPLL is years of life lot before a specified age (usually age 75). This  approach places additional value on deaths that occur at earlier ages       Rick Factor: a characteristic that has been demonstrated statistically to increase a  person’s chance of developing a disease or being injured       Risk Assessment: a quantitative estimate of the degree of hazard to a population  presented by some agent or technology or decision. A risk­benefit assessment attempts to  weigh possible risks against possible benefits       Cost Benefit Analysis: an economic analysis in which all costs and benefits are  converted into monetary values and results are expressed as dollars of benefits per dollar  expended  Page 2 of 3 Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016)      Cost Effectiveness Analysis: an economic analysis is assessed as health outcome per  cost expanded  Page 3 of3


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