Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 4 Notes
Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 4 Notes PBH205
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016) Chapter 7: StatisticsMaking sense of Uncertainty Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: Lecture Notes Need to put the data into regular terms so they can be understood To find the probability you use the number of event divided by the total number of population Also use other was to determine them o Mean which is the average number of the data It is fund by adding all the numbers and dividing by how many data points there are o Mode is the number that occurs the most in a set of data o Median is the middle number in the data set when they are in increasing order o Range is the smallest number of the data subtracted from the largest number The top two cause of deaths in the United States is cardiovascular disease and cancer Textbook Notes The science of epidemiology relies almost entirely on statistics Statistics help to make the information of cause and effect, health risks, and disease cures more understandable for people There is always some uncertainty with science o It does not help when some studies say one thing and there’s a study that contradicts another study Probability is used to describe the variety and frequency of past outcomes under similar conditions as a way o predicting s a way of predicting what should happen in the future o This helps to have an idea of what should happen, but statistics sometimes show that it does not always follow the rules When the probability is found to be 0.05 or less, the statistic is considered significant Power is the probability of finding an effect if there is one o A larger study has more power than a small study A good secondary preventive care for a disease is screening If tests are too sensitive they yield false negatives If tests are too specific they yield false positives Secondary tests are usually needed to follow up to find out if something is wrong Page 1 of 3 Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016) o This is expensive and not very effective due to the first tests giving false results Lead time bias occurs when increased survival time after diagnosis is counted as success Over diagnosis bias occurs when the tumors that are detected by the screening are not likely to progress to the state that they cause symptoms and be life threatening It is smart to adjust the rats when comparing death rates, birth rates, and so on of different places or types so that the population that is being looked at is similar The Three Mile Island was a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania that had many safeguards and experts did not except an accident to occur, but in 1979, an accident occurred but no one was harm Risks are on two scales o Dread The more dreaded the risk, the less acceptable it is o Knowability Unknown risks are less acceptable than known risks Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical P Value: the probability that an observed result or effect could have occurred by chance if there had actually been no real effort False Negative: a mistaken identification of persons as healthy or unaffected when, in fact, they have the disease or condition being tested for False Positive: a mistaken identification of persons as affected by some disease or condition when in fact, they are unaffected by the disease or condition being tested for Life Expectancy: the number of additional years of life expected at a specified point in time, such as birth or at age 45 Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL): a measure of the impact of disease or injury in a population, YPLL is years of life lot before a specified age (usually age 75). This approach places additional value on deaths that occur at earlier ages Rick Factor: a characteristic that has been demonstrated statistically to increase a person’s chance of developing a disease or being injured Risk Assessment: a quantitative estimate of the degree of hazard to a population presented by some agent or technology or decision. A riskbenefit assessment attempts to weigh possible risks against possible benefits Cost Benefit Analysis: an economic analysis in which all costs and benefits are converted into monetary values and results are expressed as dollars of benefits per dollar expended Page 2 of 3 Introduction to Public Health 205. Week 4 Notes (September 20, 2016) Cost Effectiveness Analysis: an economic analysis is assessed as health outcome per cost expanded Page 3 of3
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