EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 4
EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 4 EBIO 1030-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
EBiology Week 4 Population growth rate changes over time as a country becomes economically developed (preindustrial ➡ transitional industrial ➡ postindustrial) Extinction is a natural process but humans are accelerating it Mass extinction a large portion of earths organisms become extinct in a relatively short period of geologic time 5 great mass extinctions (marked by global catastrophes) We are currently in the midst of a mass extinction caused by human activities (hunting, habitat destruction, animal introduction) Endangered species a species that has population levels so low it faces extinction in all or part of its range Threatened species a species whose populations are declining, that is likely to become endangered in the near future Over harvesting has caused the collapse or extinction of many commercially valuable species Endemic species confined to the limited area in which it evolved, often by resource requirements (more vulnerable to extinction) Most endangered species are affected by multiple threats The decline in one species usually leads to the decline in another We focus on vertebrates (cute and fussy) and haven't focused on invertebrates and plants as much Desertification conversion of productive grassland or woodland into a desertlike region in which little grows (result of poor agricultural practices or overgrazing) Pollutants natural or manmade substances released into soil, air, or water in greater than natural amounts 3 levels of biodiversity genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity Ecoregions larger areas characterized by physical factors and species composition, representing all of earths biomes 6 main biological molecules C, H, O, N, S, and P Organic primarily composed of carbon 4 classes of macromolecules that structure all living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Monomer small subunits used to build larger molecules Polymer built by linking monomers Metabolism cells acquire and use energy Condensation (dehydration synthesis) formation of large molecules by the removal of water (monomers are joined to form polymers) Hydrolysis breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water (polymers are broken down into monomers) Carbohydrates molecules composed of C, H, and O (empirical formula: (CH2O)n) Because CH bonds have a lot of energy 3 types of carbohydrates in all living organisms: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharides one sugar unit, the simplest carbohydrates, most are 6carbon sugars Oligosaccharides short chains of monosaccharides Polysaccharides long chains of monosaccharides Lipids fatty, oily, or waxy compounds that are not soluble in water Triglycerides one glycerol and three fatty acids Saturated fatty acids (animal fats) no double bonds between carbons, solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids (vegetable oil) one or more double bonds, liquid at room temperature Trans fats produced industrially Omega 3 converted to hormones that slow down cell division and dampen inflammation Omega 6 converted to hormones that speed up cell division and trigger inflammation Healthy ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids is 2:1 Estimated modern American diet is 20:1 Phospholipids bilayer hydrophilic heads point outward, hydrophobic tails point inward toward each other Proteins polymers, composed of one or more unbranched, long chains called polypeptides Aino acid composed of an amine group, a carboxyl group, and the “R group” which is different for each kind of amino acid A protein’s shape determines its function When a protein loses its shape it also loses its function EBiology Week 4 4 levels of protein structure 1. Primary protein structure sequence of a chain of amino acids 2. Secondary protein structure hydrogen boding of the peptide backbone causes the amino acids to fold into a repeating pattern 3. Tertiary protein structure threedimensional folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions 4. Quaternary protein structure protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain Prion diseases are caused by misfolded proteins Nucleic acids to polymers Nucleotide to monomers Sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base DNA sugar is deoxyribose Nitrogenous bases: CGATU DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helix, two polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds Base pairing rules: A with T (or U in RNA) and C with G RNA (ribonucleic acid) single helix, sugar is ribose, contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Cell theory a foundation of modern biology, states that cells are the fundamental units of life Cell the smallest unit that sows the properties of life Plasma membrane controls substances passing in and out of the cell Nucleus eukaryotic cells Nucleoid prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm goo inside that surrounds everything Prokaryotes bacteria and archaea Eukaryotes fungi, plants, and animals Organelle a structure that carries out a specialized function within a cell Components of a eukaryotic cell Organelles with membranes Nucleus protecting, controlling access to DNA Endoplasmic reticulum routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids Golgi body modifying new polypeptide chains: starting, shipping proteins and lipids Mitochondrion making ATP by glucose breakdown Chloroplast photosynthesis in plants, some protists Vacuole storage Organelles without membranes Ribosomes assembling polypeptide chains Other components Cytoskeleton contributes to cell shape, internal organization, and movement
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