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EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 4

by: Jenna Notetaker

EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 4 EBIO 1030-002

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Biology > EBIO 1030-002 > EBIO 1030 001 002 Biology Human Approach 1 week 4
Jenna Notetaker

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population and species
Biology-Human Approach 1
Caitlin Kelly
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
E­Biology Week 4 Population growth rate changes over time as a country becomes economically developed  (preindustrial ➡ transitional  industrial ➡ postindustrial)  Extinction is a natural process but humans are accelerating it  Mass extinction­ a large portion of earths organisms become extinct in a relatively short period  of geologic time  5 great mass extinctions (marked by global catastrophes)  We are currently in the midst of a mass extinction caused by human activities (hunting, habitat  destruction, animal introduction)  Endangered species­ a species that has population levels so low it faces extinction in all or part  of its range  Threatened species­ a species whose populations are declining, that is likely to become  endangered in the near future  Over harvesting has caused the collapse or extinction of many commercially valuable species  Endemic species­ confined to the limited area in which it evolved, often by resource  requirements (more vulnerable to extinction)  Most endangered species are affected by multiple threats  The decline in one species usually leads to the decline in another We focus on vertebrates (cute and fussy) and haven't focused on invertebrates and plants as  much  Desertification­ conversion of productive grassland or woodland into a desert­like region in  which little grows (result of poor agricultural practices or overgrazing)  Pollutants­ natural or man­made substances released into soil, air, or water in greater than natural amounts  3 levels of biodiversity­ genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity  Eco­regions­ larger areas characterized by physical factors and species composition, representing all of earths biomes  6 main biological molecules­ C, H, O, N, S, and P  Organic­ primarily composed of carbon  4 classes of macromolecules that structure all living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and  nucleic acids  Monomer­ small subunits used to build larger molecules  Polymer­ built by linking monomers  Metabolism­ cells acquire and use energy  Condensation (dehydration synthesis)­ formation of large molecules by the removal of water  (monomers are joined to form polymers)  Hydrolysis­ breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water (polymers are broken down  into monomers)  Carbohydrates­ molecules composed of C, H, and O (empirical formula: (CH2O)n) Because C­H bonds have a lot of energy  3 types of carbohydrates in all living organisms: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and  polysaccharides  Monosaccharides­ one sugar unit, the simplest carbohydrates, most are 6­carbon sugars  Oligosaccharides­ short chains of monosaccharides  Polysaccharides­ long chains of monosaccharides  Lipids­ fatty, oily, or waxy compounds that are not soluble in water  Triglycerides­ one glycerol and three fatty acids  Saturated fatty acids (animal fats)­ no double bonds between carbons, solid at room temperature  Unsaturated fatty acids (vegetable oil)­ one or more double bonds, liquid at room temperature Trans fats­ produced industrially  Omega 3­ converted to hormones that slow down cell division and dampen inflammation  Omega 6­ converted to hormones that speed up cell division and trigger inflammation  Healthy ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids is 2:1 Estimated modern American diet is 20:1 Phospholipids bilayer­ hydrophilic heads point outward, hydrophobic tails point inward toward  each other  Proteins­ polymers, composed of one or more unbranched, long chains called polypeptides  Aino acid­ composed of an amine group, a carboxyl group, and the “R group” which is different  for each kind of amino acid A protein’s shape determines its function When a protein loses its shape it also loses its function  E­Biology Week 4 4 levels of protein structure  1. Primary protein structure­ sequence of a chain of amino acids  2. Secondary protein structure­ hydrogen boding of the peptide backbone causes the amino  acids to fold into a repeating pattern  3. Tertiary protein structure­ three­dimensional folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions  4. Quaternary protein structure­ protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain  Prion diseases are caused by misfolded proteins  Nucleic acids to polymers  Nucleotide to monomers  Sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base  DNA­ sugar is deoxyribose  Nitrogenous bases: CGATU DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)­ double helix, two polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen  bonds  Base pairing rules: A with T (or U in RNA) and C with G RNA (ribonucleic acid)­ single helix, sugar is ribose, contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Cell theory­ a foundation of modern biology, states that cells are the fundamental units of life Cell­ the smallest unit that sows the properties of life Plasma membrane­ controls substances passing in and out of the cell Nucleus­ eukaryotic cells Nucleoid­ prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm­ goo inside that surrounds everything Prokaryotes­ bacteria and archaea Eukaryotes­ fungi, plants, and animals  Organelle­ a structure that carries out a specialized function within a cell Components of a eukaryotic cell Organelles with membranes  Nucleus­ protecting, controlling access to DNA Endoplasmic reticulum­ routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids  Golgi body­ modifying new polypeptide chains: starting, shipping proteins and lipids  Mitochondrion­ making ATP by glucose breakdown Chloroplast­ photosynthesis in plants, some protists  Vacuole­ storage Organelles without membranes Ribosomes­ assembling polypeptide chains  Other components  Cytoskeleton­ contributes to cell shape, internal organization, and movement 


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