EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 5
EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, week 5 EBIO 1030-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
EBiology Week 5 Central dogma: replication (DNA), transcription (DNA to RNA), translation (RNA to Protein) Gene expression make proteins according to “instructions” from a gene (includes transcription and translation) Transcription enzymes use the nucleotide sequence of a gene to produce a complementary strand of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) contains information transcribed from DNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) main component of ribosomes, where polypeptide chains are built Transfer RNA (tRNA) delivers amino acids to ribosomes Promoter a specific binding site in DNA close to the start of a gene RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the transcript (A, U, C, G) DNA to RNA In the nucleus RNA polymerase Helix is opened, RNA polymerase forms a chain of RNA units complementary to DNA template Results (mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA) Introns nucleotide sequences that are removed from a new RNA Exons sequences that stay in the RNA Alternative splicing allows one gene to encode different proteins (some exons are removed from RNA and others are splices together in various combinations) after this a head and tail are added to the chain Translation mRNA is translated into a protein Codon a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid (the order of codons determines the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain tRNA has an anticodon complementary to an mRNA codon Genetic code consists of 64 mRNA codons (twenty kinds of amino acids are found in proteins; some amino acids can be coded by more than one codon) RNA to Protein Cytoplasm Ribosome (rRNA and proteins) Ribosome reads mRNA, tRNA’s bring in corresponding amino acids, forming an amino acid chain, chain spontaneously folds on itself Result: makes proteins Mutations smallscale changes in the nucleotide sequence of a cell’s DNA that alters the genetic code Basepairsubstitution may result in a premature stop codon or a different amino acid in a protein product (sicklecell anemia) Deletion or insertion can cause the reading frame of mRNA codons to shift, changing the genetic message Hemoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen in the lungs and carries it to cells throughout the body Frame shift the reading frame of the mRNA codons shifts
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