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by: Diana Ochoa

Introduction PSYCH 361

Diana Ochoa
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

These notes are from week one, which only covered chapter one. These terms were on Exam 1.
Principles of Behavioral Learning
Eric J. Gee, Ph.D.
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Ochoa on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 361 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Eric J. Gee, Ph.D. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Behavioral Learning in Psychology at Brigham Young University - Idaho.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 1 | Introduction: Learning to Change Book Notes - Learning is 1 and foremost a survival mechanism - Change is the rule; the struggle to survive is an effort to cope with change - Changes: climate, terrain, pollution, predators, environment - Natural selection also changes certain kinds of behavior - Many reflexes serve to protect us from injury - Reflex failure can occur with the use of drugs, which depress the central nervous system - Motor reflexes slow with age - Genes play a role in fearfulness, excitability, aggressiveness, activity level, drug abuse, risk-taking - Main problem with natural selection is that its slow, occurring over generations - Adaptations that helped can become useless quickly - Learning: evolved modifiability—characteristic allowing organisms to change within the lifetime of the individual - The key issue in learning: did a change in behavior occur? - Behavior=measurable - Changes in behavior are learning, the result of experience - No change in environment, no change in behavior - Behavior changes due to drugs, injury, aging, disease don’t qualify as learning - Contribute to behavior: natural selection and learning Lecture Notes - Learning: behavioral and cognitive o Behavioral: raising hand automatically after a professor asks a question o Cognitive: learning the chemical formula of water o Both: involve change - Charles Darwin o Variation of animals, physical characteristic o Change in environment o Random mutation o Changes in behavior too - Categories of behavior o Reflexes: behavior elicited by a stimulus (baby reflexes) o Modal action pattern (MAP) o General behavioral traits - Behavior: overt action or response, its observable - Stimulus: environmental event - Elicit: to bring forth - Releaser associated with MAPs, stimulus associated with reflexes - Instinct: natural action - Reflexes and MAPs: not learned, don’t have to think about it - MAP has more variability than reflexes - MAP example: dad penguin passing off chick to mom penguin - MAP: whole body experience, reflex: a single part of the body - Do humans have MAPs? o MAP criteria  Done without thought  Innate  Complex Chapter 1 | Introduction: Learning to Change  Presence of releaser  Doesn’t vary much  Whole organism o Possible human MAPs (if we do have MAPs, then maybe our frontal lobes lets us ignore them)  Nurturing children  Moral behavior  Food seeking  Mate seeking  Independence - General behavioral traits o Degree of behavioral inhibition o Criteria  Simple and complex  Variable, individual  Purposive behaviors, thoughtful  Malleable by experience  Not automatic - Genetics o Behavioral inhibition: highly reactive, low reactive o Evolved modifiability: ability to modify behavior o Environment: certain consequences affect us - William James o Consciousness is an adaption o Habits guide our behavior, sometimes things we don’t think about - Ivan Pavlov o Learns how to modify behaviors - John Watson o Psychology should only focus on behaviors o Environment is everything o Ignore consciousness because it’s not observable o Wants psychology to be like other sciences o Theoretical goal: predict and control behavior o Premises if behaviorism  Universe isn’t random, but orderly  There are causes of behavior and they can be found  Causes aren’t found in intrinsic factors, like personality  Causes are found in the external environment, physiology, genetics, and past experiences  Such intrinsic factors can be explained and described as behaviors - BF Skinner o “humans are complex chickens” o Neobehaviorism o Food isn’t a reinforce because its diminishing hunger o Atheoretical: no theory, no explanation o We need to know what control behaviors


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