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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Shannan Dillen

Chapter 2 Notes PSY 2110

Shannan Dillen
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes are for chapter 2. They cover scales of measurement, variables, and notation.
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
S. Tice-Alicke
Class Notes
Statistics, Math
25 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannan Dillen on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2110 at Ohio University taught by S. Tice-Alicke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Statistics for Behavioral Sciences in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.

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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 2: Basic Concepts Scalesof Measurement – the set of possible numbers that maybe obtained by the measurement process 1. Nominal -placeitems into categories Ex: political affiliation,gender,academic major -no order 2. Ordinal -simplest true scale -organizesevents, objects, etc. along a continuum -ordered according to magnitude Highto low, low to high Ex: freshman,sophomore, junior, senior -don’t know actual numbers, how much more/how much less Ex: Olympic medals 3. Interval -eachscore indicates anactual amount -number represents quantity -equal unit of measurement separating eachscore -allows for negative numbers -canhave a scoreof zero, but it isnot an absolute zero Absolute zero – nothing there, absence of characteristics Ex: Fahrenheit temperature scale,assessments 4. Ratio -eachscore indicates actual amount -equal unit separating each score -score ofzero is an absolute zero -no negative numbers Ex: test scores, number of pets you have Variable–anything that cantake on morethan one specific value Ex: gender,IQ scores,hair color DiscreteVariable –results in a whole number Dichotomous – something that results in two amounts or two categories Continuous Variable –allows for fractional amounts Ex: weight –allows for decimals,but could bea whole number Independent Variable –the variablemanipulatedby the experimenter Ex: amount of exercise Dependent Variable –variablebeing measured Ex: measuring weight Control Group –gets treated likeexperimental group, but gets nothing ofthe independent variable Experimental Groups –get the independent variable To determine which variableiswhich: What is being measured? What is thought to influence the dependent variable? 2 2 Participant X X Y Y XY # times # timessick skipped class 1 5 25 1 1 5 2 4 16 2 4 8 3 3 9 3 9 9 4 2 4 4 16 8 Notation X or Y ∑ - summation sign –to sum, to add – “the sum of…” ∑X =add all xvalues 2 ∑X = square eachxvalue, then sum 2 (∑X )=sum all x values,then square the total (∑X)(∑Y)=sum all xvalues, sum all y values, multiply ∑XY = multiply eachx valueby corresponding y value, then add N = population size; # of casesin the population n = samplesize; # of casesin the sample ∑CX= C∑X The notation ∑CXmeans to multiply every valueof X by the constant C and then sum. A constant is any number that does not changeits value ina givensituation.


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