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Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 1

by: Katerina Kushla

Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 1 CH 1213

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Chemistry > CH 1213 > Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 1
Katerina Kushla
GPA 4.0

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Week 5 and 6 Sept. 15 and 20, 2016 Stoichiometry, Ionic Equations, Acids and Bases
Chemistry 1
Dr. Eric Van Dornshuld
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katerina Kushla on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Eric Van Dornshuld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 Chapter 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions Part 1: Stoichiometry, Ionic Equations, and Acids and Bases Chemical Equation – a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction Reactants – substances undergoing reaction; left of arrow Products – substances generated from a reaction; right of arrow Coefficients – indicate the relative numbers of reactant and product species * Subscripts are numbers of atoms * Coefficients are number of molecules Reactants Products CH +42O  CO2+ 2H O 2 2 It’s basically a ratio: 1 : 2 : 1 : 2 This equation is balanced, so for every: 5 mol CH4you need 10 mol H O2because the ratio is 1 : 2 3 mol CO 2ou need 3 mol CH b4cause the ratio is 1 : 1 7 mol CH4you need 14 mol O b2cause the ration is 1 : 2 Etc… 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Solids – (s) Liquids – (l) Gases – (g) Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 Aqueous – (aq); dissolved in water *H2O is always a liquid (l) *The delta sign () above the arrow means heat is applied to cause the reaction * ALWAYS BALANCE EQUATION FIRST * NEVER change a subscript, only coefficients Ex. – Balancing Equations: C2H 6 O 2 O + 2O 2 C H O C H O 2 6 2 1 2 3 C2H 6 7/2O 2 3H O +22CO 2 2C 2 6 7O  2H O + 2CO 2 4 12 14 4 12 14 Ex. – Balancing Equations with Polyatomic Ions * easier to treat each polyatomic ion as a single entity when it appears on both sides of the equation AlBr3+ K 2O 4KBr + Al (SO2) 4 3 2AlBr 3 3K S2  4KBr + Al (SO 2 4 3 Al Br K SO 4 Al Br K SO4 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 6 6 3 2 6 6 3 4 12 14 4 12 14 Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 4.2 – Classifying Chemical Reactions Solubility Rules Solubility – the extent to which a substance may be dissolved in water, or any solvent Soluble – substances with relatively large solubilities Insoluble – substances with relatively low solubilities; will precipitate out of a solution as a solid MEMORIZATION 1 – Solubility Rules Equations for Ionic Reactions - Molecular Equation - (Complete) Ionic Equation - Net Ionic Equation When ions are in the aqueous phase, they are dissolved in water and the ionic compounds dissociate into their constituent ions Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 + - NaCl (aq) really means H 2(l) + Na (aq) + Cl (aq) Molecular Equation – the standard chemical equation for a given reaction; this form does not explicitly represent the ionic species that are present in a solution CaCl (2q) + 2AgNO (aq)  3a(NO ) (aq) + 2AgC3 2) Ionic Equation aka “Complete Ionic Equation” – contains all species given in the molecular equation but explicitly represents all the dissolved ions Ca (aq) + 2Cl (aq) + 2Ag (aq) + 2NO (aq)  Ca (3q) + 2NO (aq) + 2AgCl(s) 3- Net Ionic Equation – a chemical equation that omits spectator ions in an ionic equation Spectator Ions – ions whose presence is required to maintain charge neutrality; they are neither chemically nor physically changed by the reaction; they appear on both sides of an ionic equation - + 2Cl (aq) + 2Ag (aq)  2AgCl(s) Cl (aq) + Ag (aq)  AgCl(s) Chemical Reactions Names Precipitation Reaction – one in which dissolved substances react to from on (or more) solid products (known as a “precipitate”) * sometimes called double displacement, double replacement, or metathesis reaction 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO ) (aq)3 2PBI (s) + 2KNO2(aq) 3 Acid-base reactions – a reaction in which a hydrogen ion (H ) is transferred from one chemical species to another Acid – in the context of aqueous solutions, is an aqueous species that donates a proton to water + to yield hydronium ions (H O3) Strong Acid – acids that dissociate completely when dissolved in water Weak Acid – acids that slightly dissociates when dissolved in water Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 - Base – a substance that will dissolve in water to yield hydroxide ions (OH ) Strong Base – bases that dissociate completely in water Weak Base – bases that slightly dissociate in water MEMORIZATION 2 – Acids and Bases Neutralization Reaction – acid reacts with base and produces a salt and water (neither reactant is the water itself) Salt – an ionic compound that is formed by the reaction of an acid and a base that contains a cation and an anion other than hydroxide or oxide acid + base  salt + H 2 2HCl(aq) + Mg(OH) (s)2 MgCl (aq) +22H O(l) 2 FUN FACT: A strong base is actually better than a strong acid for the purpose of disposing of a body Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 Strong Acid + Strong Base Chapter 4 Week 6-7 9/15-19/16 Weak Acid + Strong Base


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