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by: Esraa Hagag

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# chemistry chem135

Esraa Hagag
Northampton Community College

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these will cover most of the next week notes
COURSE
chemistry of life
PROF.
edward s fleming
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Chemistry
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Chemistry

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esraa Hagag on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem135 at Northampton Community College taught by edward s fleming in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see chemistry of life in Chemistry at Northampton Community College.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 3 section 3 Temperature:  It is a measure of the heat content of particular substance  Fahrenheit (F)  Celsius ©  Kelvin (K) we use it because there is no negative temperature, lowest temperature is  zero Look at page 27 number 2.4, Page 37 number 2.37, Page 67 number 3.4 Significant figures:  The measured digits that are certain plus one uncertain digit at the end  When measuring something how well we know numerical value depends on the  fines of the measuring scale  The more significant figure we have the more we sure about the number e.g.   bathroom scale measures to ­/+ 1 lb., 138 ­/+ range between 137 to 139, (3)  significant figures. The (8) is uncertain digit  Doctor’s office scale measures to ­/+ 0.1 lb., 137.6 ­/+ range between 137.5 to  137.7, 4 significant figures. The (6) is uncertain digit Rules #1 zeroes at the end of number larger or greater than one are significant only if the  decimal point is explicitly shown Rule #2 zeroes between numbers are significant Rule #3 zeroes after a decimal point are significant if they are to the right of the number Look at page 30 number 2.14 Unit conversions:  Often need to convert one unit into another  Conversion factor (equality) relates unit to each other  Even if we have the equality do we multiply or divide? Use factor label method  dimensional analysis default method  When we multiply or divide number we also need to multiply or divide the units  The units are treated as algebraic terms  The goal is to keep the units we need for answer and cancel other units Medication / poison key terms Dosage: the mass of a substance administrated per kilogram of body weight Units: g/kg, mg/kg, mcg/kg Substance: could be a medicine or a poison Lethal dose 50 (LD50): the dosage which causes death in 50% of a test animal population,  results are not directly transferable between species because of different metabolism Dose: the actual amount of a substance absorbed into a body Routs of entry:   ingestion/oral  injection  inhalation  skin contact/ absorption look at page 45 number 2.54 a, b and number 2.56 a, b, c Density:  It is the mass of certain substances divided by its volume D= m/v               M= d*v               V= m/d The density of pure substance is a constant physical property (at given condition)  Physical properties: is quality of substance that can be shown or demonstrate without altering  the chemical composition of that particular substance Chemical property: is a substance stability/ reactivity regarding a change in composition during a chemical reaction Chemical reaction: is when one or more substance become new and different substances Look at page 49 number 2.60 a, c and number 2.62 a, b Specific gravity: ratio of density of a substance to the density of water Density of water= 1 g/ml Density of mercury= 13.6 g/ml Specific gravity= density of mercury/ density of water= 13.6/1= 13.6 g/ml Hydrometer is used to measure specific gravity Specific gravity= density of sample/ density of water Key measurement terms: Accuracy: is how close the average measure value to true value Precision: is the repeatability of successive measurement of the same property “how close are  these measurements to each other” Error: the difference between the average measured value and the true value 1. Random error: uncontrolled error due to limits on measuring device  Related to the uncertainty digit in measurement  Assume half measurements are too high and half are too low  If we take enough measurements, they cancel out  Average measured value coverage to true value 2. Systematic error: avoidable error due to an off­set in measuring device and/or a  consistent but incorrect measuring technique  High precision automatically leads to high accuracy if there is no  systematic error  Low precision automatically leads to low accuracy even if the average  measure value is close to the true value

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