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Bio Lecture 5

by: Cecilia Rich

Bio Lecture 5 BIO 200LLB

Cecilia Rich

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Notes from fifth lecture
Evolutionary Biology
Poulin, J
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Rich on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 200LLB at University at Buffalo taught by Poulin, J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Science at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Bio Lecture 5­ 9/12/16  What Darwin didn’t know (genetics) Mendel and basc genetics  1. Gregor Mendel   Family resembles as been around fro most of history   No clear explanation   People believed traits of parents were blended together  Gregor Mendel   Educated at a monastery   Experimented on sweet pea hybridization   Peas are good to work on because they are small, easy to grow and go through  generations quickly   Flower color   True breeding plants­ all offspring look like parents   Purple X purple breeds purple (breeds true)   Hybrids  o Bread hybrids together  o He counted the number of offspring from each cross that were each color  o Mathematical analysis that allowed im to see that they would appear in  systematice   Monohybrid crosses  o 1. P generation   Two true breeding parents   o 2. Cross fertilize  o 3. F1 generation  o 4. Self cross   One plant pollinates itself  o 5. F2 generation  o 75% were purple 25% white   Studied 7 different traits in his peas   Self crossed each F2( F3 generation)  o 1/3 purple breed true  o 2/3 purple don’t   Broved blending inheritance is not a thing   In the F1 one of the traits is not present but it reappears in the F2  Mendel’s five element model:  1. Parents transmit information about traits to their offspring  2. Each individual receives two copies of each factor to encide each trait  3. Not all factors are the same and different combinations lead to different traits  4. The two factors do not blend  5. The presence of a factor does not guarantee it will be expressed   Genotype  o Alleles found in an individual  o AA is not the same Aa   Phenotype  o Physical appearance  o AA = Aa   Phenotype ratio = 3:1   Genotype = 1:2:1  Mendels’s first law of heredity   Punnett square  Dihybrid crosses   Testing two traits   Wanted to test if different traits would be passed down individually   RRYY x rryy o RY Ry, rY, ry   Phenotype Ratios  o 9:3:3:1  o Round yellow, round green, wrinkeled yellow, wrinkled green  o Mendel had great data  Mendels second law of genetic   Principle of Independent Assortment  Mendels’ understanding (he was worng)  1. Factors assort independently  2. Each trait is controlled by a single factor  3. Factors do not interact  4. Each factor obly controls one trait  Extending Mendel   Factors don’t always assort independently   Genes are sometimes linked and are on the same chromosome   Polygenic inheritance  o Mendel’s traits were all two state cases  o Tall vs short plants  o Traits inteact with each other to be controlled by multiple factors   Epistasis  o Traits can be affected by more than one gene  o Far fewer genes than polygenetic  o Lab coat color is determined by 2 genes that interact  o Without knowing you canno tell the color of the dog  o E gene determes if dark pigment is present   ee­ white lab   Ee­ chocolate lab   EE­ black lab  o The B gene determines the distribution of melanin   E_bb­ chocolate   E_B_­ black   Pleiotropy  o Sickle cell anemia  o Heterozygous for sickle cell have ability to fight malaria   Dominance is not always complete  o Incomplete dominance: parental phenotypes bled in the heterozygote  o True breading red slnap dragon X true breeding white = pink  o Codominance: heterozygoted show both parental traits   Ex: human blood types   Environment can affect factor expression  o Temperature sensitive expression   Siamese cats   Body’s have pale fur, paws, head and tail are brown   Melanin is temp sensitive   Enzyme is deactivated near it’s core 


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